Introduction to Goat Farming in Himachal Pradesh
The following guide is about Goat Farming In Himachal Pradesh.
All over the India, goat farming business is being popular. For the unemployed farmers the goat farming is the basic source of their income and also it is one of the good employment. The agriculture will be a seasonal employment as per the season the farming will be done. The goat farming business will give the farmer high returns. Day by day the goat farming business is becoming popular and also the demand for the goats and their products has been increased gradually. The meat lovers are increasing the demand for the meat is also increasing gradually. The products of goat also have high demand; like, milk, fiber, meat and also the manure.
Goat farming plays a vital role in the socio – economic life of rural people, the goat farming is the main source of marginal farmers, landless and labour. It is believed that the goat population of Himachal Pradesh is 12 Lakhs approximately. The main motto of goat farming is to propagate a good breed and also the conservation of goat farming, when compared to other countries our India ranks 1st in goat farming. In Himachal Pradesh, not only the native breeds are reared, but also the neighboring states goat breeds are also reared.
Scope and Importance of Goat Farming in India:
Goat farming has a major role in the nation’s economy of India. In India, the total goat population is 70.75 million. In the initial stages of goat farming, it might be a small employment for the farmers, but gradually the demand and also the returns are increased. The demand is increasing when the meat lovers are increasing gradually the demand will also increase. In the initial stages of goat farming the investment is also low.
Role and Contribution in Economy:
Food: The meat and also the milk have high demand in the market, these are exclusively used in our daily routine.
Fiber or Skin: The products can be prepared by using the skin or fiber, the products like pelts, hides, wool, and hair.
Employment: The farmers, those are unskilled, less literate or the low income farmers will be employed because of the goat farming.
Weed Control: By rearing the goats weeds can be controlled.
Dung and Waste Material: The waste material and dung should be collected as they too have high demand, as these should be used as farmyard manure in agricultural farms.
Storage: The milk can be stored for a long time in the goat’s body as they are also called as walking refrigerator.
Loans and Subsidies for Goat Farming:
The most profitable business in India is a goat farming business. The India is largest milk and meat producers all over the world. If the farmer is economically back, while setting the goat farming business, then the farmers get assistance from both the state and central government. There are several schemes that outline the loans and schemes for the farmer. The loans and schemes are sanctioned as per the size of the project and also as per the region of the form.
For more information, one can visit the official website of NABARD and also can visit the co –operative or rural bank, which are nearby.
Advantages of Goat Farming:
- For hauling goats can be used in hilly areas.
- At a very young age the goats are slaughtered.
- The investment on goat farming in initial stages is very low.
- The goats give us better production for very unit of investment.
- Goat handling is very easy.
- The goats give us many products like milk, meat, manure and fleece as these also have high demand in the market.
- The goats are called as social animals.
- The goats have higher digestibility, as they can be fed with any type of crude or any type of roughages, which are of poor quality.
- The housing requirement for the goats is also very low.
- The demands are also very of the goats.
- The goat milk will help in curing the diseases like asthma, cough and also the diabetes problem.
- The goat milk has high demand in the market.
Goat Breeds of Himachal Pradesh:
- Chegu Goat Breed
- Gaddi Goat Breed
Goat Feed Management:
For goats the feed is main source of energy and also the feed plays major role in goat farming business. But the farmer should have basic knowledge about the feed that should be given to the farmers. A little more care should be taken for pregnant goats and also the milch goats. The feed keeps changing as per the season and as well the goat’s age. The goats should be fed as per their age. The feed will be changing for every age, it is different for all ages. Timely the feed should be provided to the goats.
Grains: Whenever the farmer doesn’t find any feed for the goats, the goats can be fed with grains up to 12 – 16% of the course. Their weight can be increased by feeding them the creep feed and also the complementary feed. As the cereal grains are a good source of energy and carbons so these can also be fed to the goats. The grains that can be fed to the goat are as follows moil, rye, corn, oats and barley.
Hay: For goats, hay is the important source of nutrients. The hay, which can be fed to the goats should not contain hay in it. If we are feeding the hay it should be of good quality. The goats can be fed with weedy hay as they contain high amount of nutrients in it. The hays, which can be fed to the goats, are as follows alfalfa, clover and Lespedeza.
Pastures and Browsing: For the goats these pastures and browsing are a good source of nutrients. In pastures there are the high amount of proteins and energies are present. The goat digestibility and also the tastiness can be improved by feeding them the pasture and browsing. The pasture mixtures, which can be fed to the goats, are as follows Sudan grass, sorghum, grass, clover, Bahia grass, grain and millet.
Garden and Kitchen Scarp: The garden and kitchen scarp can also be fed to the goats. The fruits and vegetable cuttings can be fed to the goat as it is good for their diet. As they are a good source of energy and nutrients so they are loved by the goats. The kitchen scarp, which can be fed to the goats are as follows orange peels, tomato ends, garlic skins, banana peels, and onion peels.
Legume Fodder crops:
- Hedge lucerne
- Skimmed milk powder
- Rice polish
- Broken rice
- Groundnut cake
The feed that can be fed to the goats are as follows dog feed, cat feed and paper.
Goat Housing Management:
The goat housing is very important for intensive production. For goats the requirement of housing is very less. For maximum profits one should ensure the comfort and facilities of goats.
- The goat house should dry and hygienic.
- Goat farm should get good ventilation.
- The number of labour is very less for the goat farm.
- The goat should get enough space so that they can take rest well.
- In the farm, the goat waste should also be collected on the farm.
- In every season, we need to give the goat the warm water as the goats are afraid of cold water.
- The house should be constructed at a higher elevation so that the floods will not affect the house.
- The floor, which used in the farm, should also be dry.
- The drainage facility should be good in the farm.
- As the goats have the same requirements of human beings like growth and physical requirement so they need housing for their shelter.
- These goats should be protected from the harsh animals and also from the uneven climates that are inoculated with environmental stress.
Basic Requirements of Housing:
- Food troughs
- Milk barns
- Good location of housing / sheds
- Proper drainage
- Air inlet and outlet
Goat Breeding Management:
In goat farming business, the breeding plays a major role, as it increases the population as well as the profits. All the goats are capable of adapting themselves to any type of climatic conditions.
There are two types of breeding techniques they are;
- Natural insemination
- Artificial insemination
This type of insemination takes are long time, so it is not suitable for the commercial goat farming.
This is the most suitable breeding technique in commercial goat farming. But it costs little higher and the process of those will be quick.
Before selecting the breed, the breed should be analyzed by its body temperature and bloodlines, and also through the goat breeding efficiency.
Through the age of goats the units of production can be considered.
Preparation of Breeding:
Before the breeding season, the goat hooves should be trimmed, goats should be vaccinated and also they should be dewormed.
The breeding should be encouraged at the age of 5 – 17 months. The best time for the breeding should be at the age of 10 – 12 months. At a young age, breeding should not be done as it will cause loss to the farming business.
Preparation of Kidding:
Before breeding, the house or pen should be dry and clean, they should be good air flow in the house. The bedding should be filled and set with dry straw.
- In summer season, the heating season for the goats is in the month of March – April; the kidding season of the goats should be in the month of August – September.
- In rainy season, the heating season for the goats is in the month of June – July; the kidding season for the goats should be in the month of November – December.
- In winter season, the heating season for the goats is in the month of October – November; the kidding season for the goats should be in the month of January – February.
Goat ratio should be 1: 25 i.e. one male: twenty five female goats for the breeding purpose.
The Gestation period of goats is very short i.e. 150 -155 days.
Goat Diseases and Vaccinations:
For the goat care can be taken easily. The goats should get good food, pastures, nutrients, and they need plenty of sunshine. If the goat house is hygienic or clean the diseases occurrence will reduce gradually.
- Regularly the hooves should be trimmed for every 4 – 6 weeks.
- The hooves should not be neglected as this may lead to great loss.
- The goat should be observed regulated as per their behavior and also their physical appearance.
- If there are any changes in physical appearance, then we should consult the doctor.
- The symptoms of illness are abnormal temperature, diarrhea, nose discharge, limping listlessness, appetite and labored breathing.
- If we see or observe these symptoms in goats then consultation of vet is needed.
The diseases that affect the goat regularly are:
Ecto – parasitic infestations:
- Tick, lice etc
Endo – parasitic diseases:
- Fluke infection
- Hemorrhagic Septicemia
- Foot rot
- Goat pox
- Foot and Mouth Diseases
- Peste Des Petits ruminants
In general, there are two of vaccinations they are:
- Inactive vaccination
- Live or Active vaccination
These inactive vaccinations are also known as dead vaccines. The vaccine targets the organism directly, it treats the organism until it gets inactive. These are also capable of producing the toxins. Then these toxins can also be used as a vaccine, so this type of vaccine is called as toxoid inactivation. These are also capable of producing the immune to the goats.
This type of vaccinations targets the organism, until the organism loses its virulence. But they are capable of holding or retain them to provoke the immune to the targeted goat.
Tips for Goat Farming in Himachal Pradesh:
- The goats are also known as social animals.
- These goats belong to the herd.
- For storing the feed of goats a storage room should be maintained.
- In the farm, a first aid kit should be maintained.
- In the farm the equipment, which is necessary should be there timely.
- Goats preferred more comforts and facilities.
- The housing should be strong so that the house can tolerate anytime of uneven climatic conditions.
- The goat should be cared properly the goat should be in observation.
- Regularly the vaccinations and preventions that are required for the goats should be given timely.
- While purchasing a goat, there are some precautions, which should be taken and also while selecting the goats healthy and good breeding goat should be taken.
- The farm should always be hygienic.
- If there is any change in behavior and physical appearance, we should consult the vet.
- The vaccinations or any other treatment should not be done without consulting the vet.
- If we are starting a new farm, then the farmer should have the basic knowledge regarding the goat farming business and goat breeds.
- At the trading time, the goats should be sold in a market where the goats have high demand and good market rate.