Goat Diseases and their Treatment:
Introduction of Goat Diseases:- For successful goat farming, one should be aware of common diseases of goats and their control methods. In many cases, intensive goat farming leads to spread many diseases which ultimately results in increased mortality. If goat farmers are not aware of common goat diseases and their prevention, there may be a chance of getting losses in goat farming business. Hence, it’s very important to identify the symptoms and apply preventive care. Let us discuss about such common diseases and their control measures in commercial goat farming business.
Types of Goat Diseases:- The following are types of diseases found in most of the goat breeds in India.
Goat Diseases – Bacterial Diseases: The following are the bacterial diseases found in goats.
Symptoms: Generally, this causes to swell the udder and there may be change in colour of the goat milk.
Control Measure: Maintain the hygiene in the goat shed or house and clean the goat udders with dis-infect solutions.
Symptoms: Well, the common symptoms of this disease include sudden death in young goat kids along with mucous diarrhea.
Control Measure: Avoid feeding young green grass and carry out recommended yearly vaccination just before rainy season tarts.
Symptoms: Frequent coughing and fever are common symptoms. However, there is other possible problem in feed intake.
Control Measure: Make sure to provide clean water and keep the shed always clean and dry. Well ventilation is also required to avoid such kind of disease in goats.
Symptoms: Infertility problems and abortion during late pregnancy, and joint swelling are common symptoms of this goat disease.
Control Measure: By using hand gloves, dispose dead fetus and placenta of animal.
Symptoms: High fever and may cause sudden death. You may even notice blood flowing from nose and other outlets.
Control Measure: Affected animals (died) should be buried to stop further spread in the flock. Make sure to vaccinate the goats once in a year.
- Haemorrhagic Septicemia:
Symptoms: This disease causes high fever along with intestinal inflammation. This can cause death as well. Probability of disease is more in rainy season.
Control Measure: It is recommended to vaccinate all the goats in shed once in year just before rainy season starts.
- Foot Rot:
Symptoms: Usually this causes the wounds in the goat foot.
Control Measure: Make sure to maintain the dry conditions in goat shed.
Goat Diseases – Viral Diseases: The following are the viral diseases found in goats.
- Goat Pox:
Symptoms: This disease causes fever, nasal mucous discharge, and respiratory distress. Apart from this, Pox lesion on lips, thighs, and udder can be seen in the affected goats.
Control Measure: Can go for vaccination once in a year to prevent this.
- PPR- Peste Des Petits Ruminants:
Symptoms: PPR disease causes symptoms of fever, nasal mucous discharge, mouth lesion and respiratory distress.
Control Measure: Affected goats should be separated from the flock and vaccination once in a year should be carried out.
- FMD – Foot and Mouth Disease:
Symptoms: Symptoms of this disease include high fever, wounds in foot and mouth, increased salivary secretion, difficulty in walking.
Control Measure: To prevent this, make sure all goats are properly vaccinated. First vaccination should be done in third month and subsequently once 5 to 6 months interval.
Goat Diseases – Endo-Parasitic Diseases:
- Tape worm:
Symptoms: The symptoms of this disease include fever, slow growth of animals, and goat kid mortality.
Control Measure: Carry out periodic deworming for all goats in the shed.
- Round worm:
Symptoms: This parasitic disease can cause fever, slow rate of animal growth, anemia and edema in lower jaws of goats.
Control Measure: Make sure all animals are dewormed periodically.
Symptoms: This disease can cause blood motions (diarrhea), sudden death of goat kids, and anemia.
Control Measure: Clean the shed regularly. spray of 10% ammonia solution, as per veterinary doctor advice use any anticoccidial drugs.
- Fluke infection:
Symptoms: Symptoms of this disease in goats include anemia, emaciation and edema in lower jaw.
Control Measure: Deworming should be done in regular intervals. Grazing in early mornings and late evenings should be avoided.
Goat Diseases – Ecto-Parasitic Infestation:
- Lice, Tick:
Symptoms: This parasitic infestation can cause skin allergy, slow growth in growing animals.
Control Measure: Clean the goat house regularly and keep the floor always dry.
Goat Diseases – Other General Problems in Goats:-
- Bloat: Generally, Bloat will be formed when goats feed on (consume) young leaves and grasses, unknown weeds, easily digestible cereals, rotten vegetables and fruits. Bloat will be followed by diarrhea leading to death. For help in control of bloat, get veterinary doctor help. Avoid feeding potatoes, brinjal, beans which can form gas.
- Indigestion: Low quality feed, bad water, toxic plants, fungal contaminated feed and change of feed may result in indigestion of animals. Avoid such conditions to prevent goats from indigestion.
- Pregnancy Problems: Pregnancy Toxemia and Abortions are common problems found in pregnancy period. Pregnancy Toxemia is caused by late pregnancy especially in last 2 weeks period. This happens with goats carrying multiple kids. However, abortions in pregnant goats are caused by nutritional problems and infectious problems. For diagnosis, treatment and control of pregnancy related problems, contact your animal husbandry or local veterinary doctor.
Goat Diseases – General Precautions in Goat Farming:- Some of the diseases and health problems can be prevented by following these steps in goat farming.
- Buy healthy goats and provide initial necessary vaccinations before getting into your shed.
- Goat shed or house should be cleaned on regular basis.
- Proper ventilation is required in the shed.
- Provide clean drinking water.
- Separate any sick animal from the goat flock.
- Vaccinate goats as per schedule.
- Observe goat feeding habits, behavior and other activities to identify any abnormal things.
- In case of goat death, dispose (bury or burn) the body far away from the shed.
- Grazing early morning and late evening should be avoided.
- Rotational grazing is important to avoid any food infections.
- More observation and care is needed in pregnant goats and newly born kids.