Introduction to Somali Goat Breed:
The Somali Goat Breed belongs to the Somalia, Djibouti and Northeast regions of Kenya. This breed is exclusively famous for its meat. Somali Goat is considered as a domestic goat breed. There are some sub-breeds of the Somali Goat Breed, they are Degeun and Degyir. The Somali Goat is also known as Galla, Abgal, Boran, Borana, Ogaden, Modugh, Deg yer, Deghier and Ogaden.
Advantages of Somali Goat Breed:
- They can thrive well in arid and semi – arid areas.
- The Somali Goats are hardy animals, they can be fed with any type of vegetation.
- As they are docile animals, they can be handled easily.
- These are resistant to gastro – intestinal parasites.
- Sometimes, they are resistant to infectious diseases and are tolerant to drought conditions.
- In this breed, doe has a long life span and can live up to 10 years.
- This breed produces high quality meat.
Characteristics of Somali Goat Breed:
- Somali Goat is medium in size.
- Ears of this breed are short.
- Hair is also short.
- The coat is white in colour and has patches or spots on it.
- The skin on the nose is black in colour.
- The tail of Somali Goat Breed is black in color.
- Both buck and doe of Somali Goat Breed are horned.
- Sometimes, doe is polled or horned.
- Average weight of bucks in this breed is 70 kg.
- Average weight of doe in this breed is 45 – 55 kg.
- The height of an adult buck in Somali Goat Breed is 75 cm.
- The height of an adult doe in Somali Goat Breed is 66 cm.
Feed for Somali Goat Breed:
The success of any goat farming business depends on Goat feed management. Hence, while farming the Somali Goat Breed, feed is the most important for the goats because they need to have a good feed conversion ratio. The growth and health is completely dependent on the feed. The feed that can be given to the Somali Goat Breed are:
- Pasture and Browsing
- Garden scrap
- Kitchen scraps
Along with these, goats should be fed with food supplements like baking soda, pulse, guava leaf, kelp meal, apple cider vinegar, loose minerals and beet pulp. The goats should be fed well so that they produce good quality of meat.
Health Care of Somali Breed:
Good health care regimes can be maintained if the goats do not suffer any diseases frequently and this can be done by providing them:
Energy: Forage is a main source of energy for the goats in their day – to – day life. But the younger or developing goats, pregnant goats and meat goats should be given some extra care.
High – quality Minerals: For the optimal milk production minerals like linseed meal, soy protein isolate or soybean meal should be provided to the goats. These minerals help them in the development of their muscles and also help in the growth of the goat.
These below given factors help in the improvement and survival of the animals such as:
- Goat grooming
- Fresh water
- Good feed
- Good fitness
- Secured housing
- Health and vaccination
- Clean and safe environment
- Proper fencing
Respiration rate of Somali Goat should be in the range of 15 – 20 cycles per 29 minutes; pulse rate of this breed should be in the range of 50 – 155 per 83 minutes. Normal body temperature of this Somali Goat Breed range between 38.5˚C – 39.7˚C. Water and feed troughs should be cleaned regularly at an interval of 1 – 2 days.
Housing for Somali Goat Breed:
For any goat breed farming, housing or shelter is very important for the goats so that the goats can stay there during the night, have good security and get protected from adverse climatic conditions. As per the economical status of the farmer, housing can be constructed. There are many types of housing for the goats and they can either be small or big in size. While constructing the house or shelter for the goats, things like ventilation, air inlet, outlet, feed troughs, water troughs, proper drainage, and fencing should be properly maintained.
Breeding of Somali Goat Breed:
Somali Goat Breeding is done in between local breeds and Somalia goat breeds. Doing so helps in getting the characteristics and advantages of both the local breeds and Somalia breeds into the newly produced breed.
Care for Somali Breed:
Somali Goat should be kept in a safe environment. The goats should be exposed to lush pasture land, mineral supplements, having high levels of magnesium. These goats should be secured from other animals, plants and predators that are harmful to them. Fencing of the farm should be tall enough so that the goats stay in the farm itself and are safe. The goats should be cleaned regularly by bathing them with lukewarm water and with mild soap.
Tips for Raising Somali Breed :
- Farmers should learn and have basic knowledge about the Somali Goat Breed.
- Somali Goat Breed should be provided with proper facilities and comforts.
- Treatment, timely nutrients and preventive measures can help in maintaining the goat properly.
- Some techniques should also be learnt to upgrade the farm.
- Strong and good shelter should be constructed for the Somali Goat Breed.
Interesting Facts about Somali Goats:
- The animal was first domesticated by men in 10,000 B.C.
- In Asia and the Middle- East, these goats are popularly found.
- Goat milk is the first animal milk, which was used by humans.
- All over the world, there are 210 breeds of goats.
- These goats were brought to America in 1493 by Columbus.
- In early 1900’s the goats were imported into America.
- Female goats are called as “Doe”.
- Male goats are called as “Buck”.
- The castrated male goat is known as”wether”.
- Baby goat is called a “kid”.
- The process of giving birth is called “kidding”.
- In a litter the doe can have 1 – 6 kids, 4 – 6 kids are rare.
- A goat has 8 incisors and 24 molars.
- In goats, male and female both have beard.