Introduction to Sahelian Goat Breed:
Sahelian goat belongs to a Savannah group of goats. It has many types and sub-types in this group and they are raised in Saharan and sub Saharan regions of the world. This breed is also known as the Sahel, West African long-legged, Cheever barioleee, Gorane, Nioro, Fulani, and Sahelienne. This breed is widely distributed in the northwestern region of Mali. The most suitable region for the Sahelian goat breed is desert or semi desert environment. It is expected to tolerate high humid climates and is therefore widely found in arid and semi-arid zones of the Sahel. Within the native region this breed adapts to the native vegetation and nomadic life very comfortably. The survival of the breed in desert conditions is a proof of the strength of the breed.
Advantages of Sahelian Goat Breed:
- Sahelian Goat is considered as a multi-purpose goat as the animal produces both meat and skin.
- Fiber of the skin is very precious and has high demand in the market.
- This breed is easily available in the markets of West Africa; the nature of the breed is very friendly.
- Maintenance cost is low.
- They are adaptable to hot climatic conditions.
- Sahelian Goat can be trained easily.
- Sahelian Goats suffer few or no aliments.
Characteristics of Sahelian Goat Breed:
- The Sahelian goat breed is small in size.
- The body is narrow in appearance.
- Goat chest is shallow and they have a sloping short croup.
- Legs are long and spindle shaped.
- Mostly 70% of both male and female goats are horned.
- Height of Sahelian female goat is 67 – 75 cm
- Height of Sahelian male goat is 65 – 85 cm.
- Sahelian female goat heart girth is 62 – 78 cm.
- Sahelian male goat heart girth is 70 – 85 cm.
- Average weight of the Sahelian female goat is 24 – 34 kg.
- Average weight of the Sahelian male goat is 38 – 56 kg.
- Hair on the body is stiff in nature, but short in size.
- Sahelian goat has different colours like cream, white, red, black or gray.
- In female goat, udder is divided into two halves.
- In male, the scrotum is divided into two halves.
- This goat is a multipurpose breed.
- This breed is good for meat and skin.
- Milk is rarely obtained from these goats.
Feed for Sahelian Goat Breed:
The feed which is given to the Sahelian goats is:
- Sweet feed
- Human food
- Kelp meal
- Black oil sunflower seeds
- Apple cider vinegar
- Loose minerals
- Beet pulp
- Baking soda
The feed which shouldn’t be given to the goats are:
- Wild cherries
- Rhubarb leaves.
Health care of Sahelian Goat Breed:
To maintain good health without any diseases the goat should be provided with the following:
High-quality Minerals: For good growth, development of muscles and also for the optimal milk production minerals like Soy protein isolate, soybean meal, or linseed meal.
Energy: In the day – to – day life of a goat, forage is considered as the main source of energy, but pregnant goats, meat goats, younger goats or developing goats need extra energy. And that is why they are given supplemental feed as per their requirement.
Internal Parasites: Animals which graze freely are always at the risk of getting infected with parasites causing illness, dehydration and also many major health concerns.
The general body temperature of Sahelian goat is 39.7 ˚C, pulse rate of the goat should be around 50 – 155 per 83 minutes and should have 15 – 20 respiration cycles for every 29 minutes.
Housing for Sahelian Goat Breed:
Sahelian goats can be reared in open housing or in closed housing systems; size of the house may be large or small depending on the density of the animals. The goats should be provided with feed trough, water trough, inlet, ventilation, milk barns, drainage and also with a good fencing. Each goat should be provided with a minimum of 15 square meters of bed area.
Breeding of Sahelian Goat Breed:
This breed is produced by cross breeding some of the local goat breeds of Africa with exotic breeds like savanna and South African Boer goats. Both advantages and characteristics of local and exotic breeds are therefore obtained in the new breed that is produced from them. All the specification of the two breeds are successfully produced through the cross breed of an exotic and local breed. Even artificial insemination can be done for these goats.
Usually first kidding happens in about 18 months. Lactation period of the goat persists up to 5-6 months for the first 1 or 2 kids. Dressing percentage of males and castrates at 25 – 30 kg live weight is 46 – 48%.
Tips for Sahelian Goat Farming
- Before allowing the Sahelian goat to graze, methods of grazing and care required should be understood clearly by the farmer.
- Proper care should be taken for Sahelian goats like sufficient nutrients, timely treatment, preventing diseases and worms.
- These Sahelian goats are capable of tolerating all kinds of climatic conditions so can be raised easily under all circumstances.
- Facilities should be provided properly like ventilation, drainage, feed, water and proper air inlet.
- A shelter which is constructed for Sahelian goats should be capable of tolerating all types of climates like rainy, summer and winter.
- After shearing the fleece from the body of the goat, they may fall ill due to cold or freezing climate; so they should be kept in warm conditions.
- Important to note that while starting a Sahelian goat farm, one should always purchase both the buck and the doe.