Indian Goat Breeds Guide:
Indian Goat Breeds – Introduction to Goat Breeds in India:- As we know goat farming is gaining momentum every year because of high demand of goat meat and goat milk. Goat meat has excellent demand both in domestic and export markets. Goat farming is proven successful business, hence many youngsters are showing interest. However, there are many factors responsible for successful goat farming business. One should have proper knowledge on ‘how to raise goats’ along with good business plan. Selection of goat breed is another major factor in commercial goat farming. Goat growers have to research on suitable breeds for the local environment. In India there are many goat breeds raised and some of them are cross bread and some are pure bread. Goat breed selection depends on type of rearing. If the goats are being grown for dairy, then you should be aware of high milk yielding breeds. In case of meat goat farming, you should be aware of meat goat breeds. There are about 20 well defined Indian goat breeds apart from a number of local non-descript goats scattered throughout India. In the article , let us go through common goat breeds available in India (Region wise).
Himalayan Region – Hilly Tract : Himachal Pradesh, parts of Uttar Pradesh (UP) and Jammu & Kashmir comes under this region. The following goat breeds are popular in this region.
- Indian Goat Breeds – Pashmina : These goats are small in size are raised above 3500 meter elevations in the Himalayas, ladakh and lahaul and spiti valleys. There are exclusively grown for fine and quality fibre. On an average, these goats yield ‘pashmina’ 70 to 150 grams ( per goat).
- Indian Goat Breeds – Chegu : This breed is mostly spread out in yaksar, spiti, and kashmir region. These goat breeds are available mostly in white coat. These are raised for meat and pashmina. They also yield small quantity of milk. These goats have average birth weight of 2 kg and one can expect singles (1 kidding) in a year. On an average, male goats (bucks) gain about 40 kg and females (doe) 30 kg. These goat breeds are also used to carry loads in drought periods.
- Indian Goat Breeds – Himalayan breed: This goat breed is also known as “gaddi”, “jamba”, “kashmiri” depending on the rearing location in the region. Mostly these breeds spread out in kangra and kulu chamba, sirmur and Simla in Himachal pradesh and parts of Jammu hills. Castrated male goats (bucks) are generally used for transporting in the hilly tract area.
Northern Region (Punjab, Haryana and parts of Uttar Pradesh) : Most of the important milch goat breeds (dairy goats) are distributed in northern region only.
- Indian Goat Breeds – Jamunapari breed: These goats are native to UP (Uttar Pradesh) and exists in large size. They are also tall, leggy with pendulous ears & Roman nose. The average birth weight is up to 4 kg. Female goats of Jamunapari can attain the body average weight of 50 to 60 kg where are male goats (bucks) can reach up to 80 kg. The fist kidding of this breed stats at 2 years (24 months). These breeds are used for crossing Anglo – Nubian goat breed in UK. When it comes to milk, you can expect up to 300 kg during the lactation (milking) period of 245 days. The fat content of this breed milk is about 3.5%.
- Indian Goat Breeds – Beetal breed: Beetal goat breed is spread mainly in the regions of Punjab. Basically, this goat breed is evolved from Jamunapari goat breed. Male beetal goats weigh at 65 to 80 kg and does will weigh about 50 to 60kg. You can expect 1 kg of milk daily from these goat breeds. Usually they exist in red, tan colors and are heavily spotted on white.
- Indian Goat Breeds – Barbari breed: This breed is spread Etah, Agra, Etawah & Mathura districts of Uttar pradesh, Paniphat, kamal, and Rothak in Haryana state. These goats are small in size with short hair and horns. This breed can exist in white, red and tan. Adult male barbari goat can weigh from 35 to 45 kg where as female barbari goat can weigh from 27 to 37 kg. This breed is excellent for stall fed goat farming. On an average, they can yield 1 to 1.25 kg of milk per day with good fat percentage (5%). The lactation period of barbari goat breed is about 110 days. This breed goats are prolific in nature and can kid twice in 12 to 16 months. If you are planning for intensive rearing, barbari goats are good fit for this.
Central Region (Rajasthan, Madya pradesh, Gujarat and northern parts of Maharastra):
- Indian Goat Breeds – Marwari, Mehsana and Zalwadi breed: These are derived from Jamunapari goat breed and mostly found in Rajasthan, Gujarat and Madhya pradesh states. These goat breeds are available in different color combinations. When it comes to milk yield, these goats can yield between 0.80 to 1 kg of milk/ day.
- Indian Goat Breeds – Sirohi breed: This goat breed found in surrounding area. Ajmer, Jaipur, Tonk, Bhilwara and adjoining areas in state of Gujarat state.
- Indian Goat Breeds- Berari breed: These goats are commonly found in Nagpur and some parts of Maharastra and Ninar district of MP (Madhya Pradesh). This breed goats are tall and exist in dark colors. Female Berari goats (Does) can yield up to 0.7 kg of milk/day.
- Indian Goat Breeds- Kathiiawari breed: This goat breed is native of Rajasthan, Kutch and Northern Gujarat. The female goats of this breed can yield 1.25 kg to 1.50 kg per day. They exists in black coat color with reddish color marks on the neck.
Southern Region ( Maharastra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu and Kerala):
- Indian Goat Breeds – Kanni aadu breed: These goats grow well in the draught regions and mainly reared for meat purpose and mostly found in Thirunelveli and Ramanadhapuram districts of Tamil Nadu state. The kidding rate is high one can expect 2 to 3 kids in each birth.
- Indian Goat Breeds – Kodi aadu breed: This breed goats are tall and found with different colors, but predominantly black color. They are good for external grazing and usually you can expect 1 or 2 kids in each birth. You can find these goats mostly in regions of Ramanadhapuram, Sivagangai, and Tuticorin districts of Tamil Nadu state.
- Indian Goat Breeds – Malarbar (or) Tellicherry breed: These goat breeds mostly distributed in the state of Kerala. These goats exists in white, brown and black colors. They can easily kid 2 or 3 in each delivery and mainly reared for meat purpose. These goats can yield 1 to 2 kg milk per day and can weigh about 40 to 50 kilos (males) and 30 to 40 kilos (females).
- Indian Goat Breeds – Surti breed: This goat breeds look similar to ‘Berari’ goat breeds and exist in white color. These animals are short legged. Surti goat breed found commonly in Mumbai, Nasik and Surat. You can expect good milk yield from female goats and they usually yields 2.25 to 2.50 kg per day.
- Indian Goat Breeds – Osmanabadi (Deccania) breed: These goats are native to state of Maharashtra. These breeds mainly found in Osmanabad, Ahmednagar, Latur, Parbhani, Sholapur and other surrounding areas of Maharashtra. Now these goats spread into Karnataka, Telangana, Andhra pradesh and other neighboring states. Osmanabadi goats derived their name from a place called “Osmamabad” in Maharashtra. These are tall and large size animals and weigh about 2.5 kg at birth time. They usually kid at 20 to 21 months first time and this breed is mainly grown for meat. These goats mostly exist in black color. These goats are also good milk producers. They can yield up to 2 to 2.5 kg /day and their lactation period would be 175 to 180 days.
Indian Goat Breeds – Boer breed: Boer goats becoming very popular throughout the world due their fast growth. This breed is originated in South Africa. Boer goats are mainly raised for meat purpose. Male Boer goats (bucks) can reach a weight up to 120 to 140 kg and female Boer goats (does) can weigh up to 100 kg. Boer goat kids can weigh 25 to 30 kg at 3 months of age. These can be grown in most of the states in stall fed intensive method.
Indian Goat Breeds – Black Bengal breed: Black Bengal goat is a prolific breed and mostly found in eastern region of India (West Bengal) and Bangladesh and Pakistan. Their coat color exist predominantly in black. They have excellent reproductive system and can produce even 3 to 4 kids at a time. They start to kid at the age of 9 to 10 months and they kid twice a year and this breed skin has high demand for shoe making.
Indian Goat Breeds – Some tips for Goat farmers:
- It is always best to buy pregnant goats, which are expected to deliver kids in 45 to 60 days.
- After kids birth, they need nutritious milk from their mother so never use goat milk for personal use during kid growth period (up to 3 months).
- Recommended green fodders along with other supplemental feed: Lucern, Agathi, Glaricidia, Barseem, Stylo, Dashrath, CO3, CO4, Hybrid Napier, Gini Grass, Subabul, African Tall, Sorghum (bajra), and Molato.
- Recommended dry fodder: Ground Nut, Barley, Maize (Corn). You can also use silage which can be prepared using green fodders. For silage making steps: Read here.
- It is advised to use day manure to make vermicompost for additional income where as goat night manure can be supplemented in the field for growing green fodder crops. This can drastically reduce compost/fertilizer and feed cost.
- How much area is required for fodder growing?: Green fodders and trees cultivated in one acre of land is enough to feed 25 to 30 goats.
You can prepare concentrate feed for your goats as mentioned below.
|Ingredients of feed||Goat Kid Ration||Growing Goat Ration||Lactating Goat Ration||Pregnant Goat Ration|
- Goat kids should be provided with 60 to 100 grams of concentrate for first 3 months.
- For growing goats, provide with 125 to 150 grams of concentrate daily for 3 to 10 months.
- For pregnant goats (does), concentrate should be given up to 225 grams daily.
- Milch goats (dairy goats) which are producing one kg of milk should be provided 300 to 325 grams of concentrate daily.
- You should also provide mineral blocks with rich copper of 1000-1250 ppm should be provided in the goat stalls of the shed or house.