How To Start A Goat Farm
The following information is all about goat farming set up.
Commercial goat farming business contributing its major role in the economy and nutrition of the country. Goat rearing is a new idea of business, Goat farming is a profitable business done since ancient days. In goat farming, goat is reared for milk, meat and their fiber. Like poultry, cattle farming, even the goat farming plays a major role in the economy. Goat farming is mainly opted by small and marginal farmer as their additional source of income. Goat rearing is done mainly in rural areas, and it even gained its popularity in urban areas for its profit margins and it needs very low investment.
Advantages of goat farming set up
- The Investment required for goat farming is very less.
- Goats have small bodies than cattle, so they don’t require large sheds or houses. Goats are very obedient, and we don’t get much problems with goats.
- Goats can have raised along with other livestock, as they are very friendly animals and love human beings.
- Goats are highly productive, sexual maturity in goats is 10 -12 months. And goat gestation period is very short, and we can start milking at the age of 16 to 17 months.
- Goat farming business less affected by drought.
- Both male and female goats have good demand in the market.
- Mixed species grazing is good for goats. Goat grows vigorously in all types of thorny bushes, weeds, crop residues, and all the agricultural byproducts unsuitable for human consumption.
- Goat has the capacity to maintain grazing lands and reduce bush’s growth without harming the environment.
- No religious rules made against goat meat. It is consumed all over the world.
- Goat meat very nutritious with very low cholesterol levels.
- Goat can be milked many times, unlike other cattle. This reduces the refrigeration cost and you don’t have any storage problems.
- Commercial goat farming can give employment to many labor.
- Goat farming is more profitable and low investment business than sheep or another cattle farming.
- Cashemere goats are reared for high quality wool.
- Goat manure is high quality fertilizer for the fields, goat manure has the capacity to increase crop production.
- All the Banks, Private Banks are issuing loans for commercial goat farming business.
Goat Farming Set Up – Why Goats are reared?
Goats are generally reared for its healthy and nutritious milk, meat, fiber and manure.
Goat Milk- Goat milk is very nutritious, and it is used for producing many dairy products like goat milk powder, goat butter, goat milk cream. Which used as medicine for many diseases in Ayurveda. Goat milk more digestible than cow milk with good anti-fungal and anti-bacterial properties. Consuming goat milk will increase the immunity power and appetite.
Goat Meat-Goat meat has great demand all over the world for its amazing taste and nutritional value. Goat meat of most consumable meat.
Goat Fiber: Goat wool and skin has great demand in the leather industry.
Goat Skin: All goat breeds produce skin. But only a few breeds produce high quality skin. Some breeds produce high quality skin that has great demand in international markets.
Goat Manure: Goat manure is highly nutritional for many farms. It is considered as quality organic fertilizer. You can earn money by selling goat manure.
Goat Farming Set Up – Technical Feasibility to start a commercial goat farming unit
- Select the area near to the veterinary dispensary, goat breeding center, marketing outlets for fattened kids/meats and the financing bank branch.
- Availability of training centers or other livestock farming centers.
- Availability of good grazing lands and grounds.
- Availability of veterinary aid/breeding centers and marketing facilities near to your farming center.
- Availability of green/dry fodder, concentrate feed, medicines etc.
Goat Farming Set Up – Financial Assistance from Banks
Comparing your technical feasibility and financial ability, the loans will be sanctioned by the banks. The loan is issued at different levels like construction of shed, purchase of equipment and animals. And the bank verifies loan use and constant follow-up is done by the banks.
Goat Farming Set Up – Goat Insurance
In commercial goat farming, goats should be insured annually or on long term master policy. Many insurance schemes are also available in the market so insure you goats as per the requirements.
Goat Farming Set Up – Goat Breeds
Different type goat breeds available around the world for commercial goat farming.
- Goat breeds include Pygmy goats, dwarf goats of Nigeria, Cashmere goats, black Bengal goat, mountain goats, Boer goats, etc. These goats breed most popular and famous for its meat taste.
- Goat breeds reared for their milk: Nubians, Lamanchas, Alper, Oberhasli, Saanen and Togenburgs are famous for their high nutritional milk.
- Boer goats are the best breed that good for meat production. But this breed goat is highly expensive.
Goat Farming Set Up – Selection of farm area for goat farming
Select a best suitable farm area for your business that should have following facilities.
- Land you select should have good water supply.
- Availability of all types of equipment’s.
- Farm area should be near a food source.
- Farm area should be fertile to grow grass, and other green plants that goat eats.
- Farm area should have full time labor, and good transportation and veterinary service.
- Farm are should be near to the market centers.
Goat Farming Set Up – Housing requirements for Goat Farming / Rearing
Housing plays a major role in commercial goat farming business. Commercial goat farming requires a good housing system.
- Housing required construction of shed on a dry and raised ground.
- There should not be water logging, marshy areas.
- In heavy rainfall areas or low-lying areas shed floor should be preferably elevated.
- In temperate region the floor should be made of wood.
- The height of the shed should be 10 ft height and should have proper ventilation.
- Goat bucks should be housed in individual compartments. And goat does can housed in group.
- Number of goats per compartment if 60.
- Goats should be provided with clean water in summer.
- Keep the shed temperature cool in summer.
- The Shed should be constructed with a good drainage facility that can dispose the waste properly.
- The Shed should large enough to accommodate all the goats without congestion.
- Don’t over stock or crowding.
Goat Farming Set Up – Steps to select and purchase of goats for rearing
- Select the animals that have good health and good physical features.
- Consult the veterinarian before purchasing goats.
- Select and purchase the animals that are ready to breed and in the prime stage of production.
- After purchasing the goats give some identification mark. Identification marks help to identify them easily in the group.
- Vaccination is compulsory for newly purchased goats.
- Newly purchased goats are kept in observation for 15 days before mixing them in the group.
- Goats should be bred at the interval of 8 to 9 months. This process increases the productivity in goats.
- Goats should be culled after 6 years.
- Peak Summer and winter seasons are not suitable for kidding.
Goat Farming Set Up – Feeding for commercial goat rearing
- Goat grazes in the fields with bushes and shrubs.
- You should also include cultivated fodder as an alternative feed.
- Feed them with roughages adlib.
- 2/3 of energy requirement should be provided through roughage.
- 50% of roughages should be leguminous green feeders and the remaining should be grasses and tender tree leaves.
- If you don’t get enough green feeder you should ass concentrates to replace them.
- For the first 5 days kids should be fed with colostrum. And then you start feeding in small rations.
- Kids should be feed with green leguminous fodder from 15 days after birth.
- Salt and water should be given at regular intervals for kids in summer season.
- You can give some concentrated to bucks and does at the time of breeding.
- Make sure animals gets and necessary nutritional food.
Goat Farming Set Up – Production Parameters in Goat Farming
Commercial goat farming should be implemented under certain production parameters. Listed below are some parameters noted for profitable farming.
- Age at first kidding.
- Kidding interval.
- Kidding percentage.
- Number of kids produced.
- Mortality of adults/young one.
- The Kids sold at the age.
- Weight of animals.
Goat Farming Set Up – Diseases and Vaccinations in Goats
- Reduce of intake, fever, abnormal discharge or weird behaviors, etc. at some disease’s symptoms. So, you should be alert to these signs of illness.
- In case of any illness, consult a veterinary doctor at the earliest.
- Goats should be vaccinated for common diseases.
- In case serious diseases, keep the animal separately from the group.
- Give deworming medicine regularly.
- Inspect the Feces of goats to detect the eggs of internal parasites and give necessary treatment.
- Feed you provide should clean and healthy.
- You should follow the vaccination schedule strictly.
Goat Farming Set Up – Vaccination schedule in Goats
The Goat should be vaccinated for diseases: PPS, Goat fox, mouth diseases and bacterial diseases like anthrax, brucellosis etc. Goats should be vaccinated at the age of the fifth month of gestation period. Vaccination that kids PPR vaccine when they reach 5 months of age.
Vaccine Name Applying Rate Applying Method
PPR 1ML Injection under skin.
Foot and Mouth Diseases 2ML Injection under skin.
Anthrax 1ML Injection under skin.
Goat Farming Set Up – Breeding in Goat farming:
- Each goat should have 3 kidding in a 2 year span.
- During breeding season for every 25 does one buck should provide.
- The Animal should be bred after one set of the first symptoms of heat.
- Animals that are unable to breed should be examined by a veterinary doctor.
Goat Farming Set Up – Pregnancy care in goat farming
During pregnancy the does should transferred to kidding pens or some other separate space for kidding. After kidding the does should provided with warm bran mash for two days.
Goat Farming Set Up – Kids care in goat farming
- New born kids should be placed on the guard rails.
- The Naval cord should be treated with iodine after cutting it with a sharp knife.
- Kids should be protected from weather changes for first two months.
- Kids should be dehorned at first two weeks of age.
- Kids should be vaccinated as per vaccination schedule.
- Wean the kids at age of 8 weeks.
- Maintain the records of body weight and weaning weight of kids for selection of kids and replacing the culled adult stock as breeders.
- New born kids should have a proper nursing facility.
Goat Farming Set Up – Marketing for goat farming
In commercial goat farming marketable products are fattened kids, manure, culled animals. You sell at the slaughterhouses, individual meat centers and at agricultural centers. Goats have a good market in almost every part of the world. So, you easily sell your products in at the nearest market. Commercial producers can target the international market and export the products in other countries.
Goat Farming Set Up – Tips for the profitable goat farming business
You should follow some necessary steps to make your goat farming business more profitable.
- The First tip is to raise your goat properly. Keep your goat healthy and strong.
- Select the best goat breed that suitable for your environment and highly productive.
- Get a complete idea about the goat health, vaccinations, breeding etc.
- Keep goat diseases free for good milk production and meat.
- Always give the animals a good healthy food with clean water.
- You should take special care of pregnant does and newborns.
- Consult the veterinary doctor regularly for the good growth of animals.
- At the time of mating you should provide goats with extra nutritious food.
- In summer provide goats with salt and water at regular intervals completely.
- You should keep the goats away from cold and the rain to avoid mass death.
Goat Farming Set Up – Disadvantages of Goat Farming
- Goat can be harmed with predator like dogs etc.
- In goats it is difficult to diagnose viral diseases in goats, viral spread fast in goats and may cause death.
- Goats need more sanitation requirements.
- Goats need extra care in pregnancy, improper care can cause death of kids.
- Goats may create crop loss by eating vegetable and fruits. Loss of goats may occur due to their restless tendency.