Introduction to Goat Farming in Uttar Pradesh:
Today, let us talk about Goat Farming In Uttar Pradesh.
The Goat Farming is one of the popular occupations in India. It is good employment for the unemployed farmers, as the agriculture depends upon the season, but the goat farming will be throughout the year. Through goat farming, the farmer will benefit a lot as this business provides high returns. Goat farming is becoming popular day by day as the meat lovers and also the demand for the meat is increasing so the demand for the goat farming is also high. As the Indian population is increasing the goat population is also increasing gradually. The goat gives us some by-products like milk, fiber, meat and also manure. As these products also have high demand in the markets.
In socio – economic life of rural people the goat farming plays a vital role the goat farming has become a main source of income for the landless, labour and marginal farmers. It is believed that the total goat population of 1.5 crore in goat farming Uttar Pradesh ranks 2nd. For the total goat population in India, Uttar Pradesh contributes 11.53 %. The propagation of the good goat breed and conservation is the main object of goat farming. All over the world India ranks 1st in goat farming in Uttar Pradesh not only native breeds are reared also the neighboring state goat breeds are also reared.
Scope and Importance of Goat Farming in National Economy:
In the national economy of India the goat farming plays a major role. The total goat population of India is 70.25 million. At the initial stages the employment will be small, gradually when the demand for the goat increases the returns will also increase. As meat lovers are increasing the demand is also increasing. The initial investment on goat farming is very low.
Loans and Subsidies for Goat Farming:
Among all other livestock business, goat farming is one of the most profitable business. The country which produces the meat and milk in large amount is India. The farmers who are economically back while setting up the goat farming business, those farmers will get assistance from both the central and state government. There are many schemes for outlining the loans and subsidies for the farmers.
The farmers get assistance from the NABARD, the loans and subsidies are sanctioned as per the region of form and size of the project. For more information on can visit the rural, co-operative banks or else they can visit the official website of NABARD.
Role in Economy and Contribution:
Employment: For the farmers, those are unskilled, less literate or for the low income farmers it will be a source of their livelihood.
Storage: The goats have good storage capacity as they can store the milk in them. The goats are also called as walking refrigerator.
Food: The milk and meat of the goat have high demand in market of India, these are extensively used as food in daily routine.
Weed Control: The weeds can be controlled by rearing the goats.
Dung and Waste material: The dung and waste material of goats has high demand in the market as these are used as farmyard manure in agricultural farms.
Fiber or Skin: By using the skin or fiber we can prepare the products like wool, hair, hides, and pelts.
Advantages of Goats:
- The goats have higher digestibility, so they can be fed with the crude or any type of roughages that are poor in quality.
- The goats are known as social animals..
- These goats can be raised by children, women and also the agricultural labour.
- The initial investment on goat farming is very low.
- The goat milk is capable of curing all the health problems like diabetes, cough, asthma etc.
- The goats are slaughtered at a very young age.
- As the goats don’t have any religious taboo, so these goats are relished by all sections of society people.
- They are very cheap to maintain and can also be maintained very easily.
- The goat milk has high demand in the market.
- When compared to the cow’s milk the goat milk has high demand in the market.
The milk of goat will help us in good digestion and it is also very nutritious.
- The goats have very few housing demands, as they can adjust with any other livestock or else with the owner also.
- The goats can be handled easily
- Not only the goats have high demand, but also the products that we get from the goats also have high demand.
- These goats are used in hilly areas for the hauling.
- For every unit of investment the goats give us better production
- These goats don’t need particular climate they can tolerate all types of climates.
Goat Breeds of Uttar Pradesh:
- Barbari Goat Breed
- Jamunapuri Goat Breed
- Pantja Goat Breed
- Rahilkhandi Goat Breed
Goat Feeding Management:
As the goat function, multi – purposely so they are called as the ruminant animals. The feed management plays major role in the goat farming. If a person is successful in goat farming then the feed management plays a major role in the goat farming. But while farming the goats the farmer should have basic knowledge of goat farming and also the feed for the goats. Extra care should be taken for the pregnant goats and also the milch goats. The feed should be provided to the goats as per the age and the season. For every age and season the feed for the goats will be changed.
Garden and Kitchen Scrap:
For a good diet the goats can be fed with garden and kitchen scarp. All the cutting waste of fruits and vegetables can be fed to the goats. These scarps are loved by the goats as they are a good source of energy and also nutrients. The kitchen scarp that can be fed to the goats are onion peels, tomato ends, banana peels, garlic skins and orange peels.
Hay: The hays are an important source of nutrients for the goats. The hay which doesn’t contain mold in it should be fed to the goats. The hay which is fed to the goats should be of high quality. In weedy hay large amount of nutrients is contained, so they should be fed to goats. The hays which are fed to the goats are Lespedeza, clover and alfalfa.
Grains: when we don’t find or get any kind of feed for the goats they can be fed with grains up to 12 – 16 % of the course. By feeding the creep feed and complementary feeding to the goats their weight can be increased. Cereal grains can be fed to goats as they are good sources of carbons and energy. The grains that can be fed to the goats are barley, rye, moil, oats and corn.
Pasturing and Browsing: These pastures and browsing as a good source of nutrients for the goats. In high amounts proteins and energies are enclosed in the pastures. These will help the goat in increasing their digesting ability and tastiness. The mixtures of pasture are done with sorghum, grass, grain, clover, Bahia grass, millet and Sudan grass.
Along with all these the goats can be fed with
- Broken rice
- Groundnut cake
- Skimmed milk powder
- Rice polish
Legume Fodder crops:
- Hedge lucerne
A feed which should not be fed to the goats are paper, cat feed, and dog feed.
Goat Housing Management:
For intensive production of goats the goat housing is very important. The requirements of housing for the goats are very few. One should ensure the facilities and comforts of goats for maximum profits.
- The main motive of housing is to protect the animals from harsh animals and also the uneven or inoculated environmental stress.
- The goats have some physiological requirements for their growth and productions as like human beings.
- The farm should have good ventilation.
- There should be good ventilation in the farm.
- The farm should have good floor, the floor should always be dry.
- On the farm there should be good drainage facility.
- The farm should be constructed at a higher elevation so that there will be no problem when the floods attack the farm.
- The rain water should never enter the house.
- The goats should have enough space for taking a rest on the farm.
- In all seasons the goats should be provided with warm water as they are afraid of cold water.
- The goat waste should also be collected on the farm.
- The house should be hygienic and dry.
- The labour which is required for the farm is very less in number.
Basic requirement of goat housing:
- Good location of housing/ sheds
- Milk barns
- Proper drainage
- Air inlet and outlet
- Food trough
Goat Breeding Management:
The breeding plays major role in the goat farming business. The breeding will be helping the farm to increase the population as that brings more profits to the farmers. The goats can adapt themselves to any type of climates as they are hardy and adapt themselves. In goat farming the breeding is an essential task to get high returns in goat farming.
There are two types of breeding techniques. They are:
Natural insemination: This will take a long time and it is not suitable for commercial goat farming.
Artificial insemination: This will be suitable for the artificial insemination, but it is a little cost efficient, but process faster than the natural breeding.
The breed should be identified by analyzing their body temperature and also the blood lines of the goats. We should also determine the goat breeding efficiency.
Consideration of product units should be done through the age of the goats.
Preparation of breeding:
Before breeding season, the goats should be prepared by trimming their hooves, deworming them and also by vaccinating them.
The goat should be encouraged at the age 5 – 17 months. The best time for the breeding is at the age of 10 – 12 months. The breeding should not be done at a young age.
Preparation of Kidding:
The house or the pen which is used for the sheltering the kids should be clean and dry, they should be good air flow. The bedding should be set with dry straw.
- Summer – the heating season for the goats are in the month of March – April, kidding season of the goats should be in the month of August – September.
- Rainy – the heating season for the goats are in the month of June – July, kidding season of the goats should be in the month of November – December.
- Winter – the heating season for the goats are in the month of October – November, kidding season of the goats should be in the month of January – February.
The breeding ratio of the goats is 1:25 i.e. one male: twenty five females..
While the breeding process the gestation period of goats is very short i.e. 150 – 155 days.
Goat Diseases Vaccinations:
If the goats can attacked by any diseases, they should be vaccinated by consulting a vet doctor. The goats should be observed regularly based on their physical activates or behaviour. The goat should be cared a little more so else it might lead to a big loss of goats and kids. For preventing the goats from the diseases the farm should be hygienic and also be cleaned regularly. The feed which is of good quality should be given to the goats. The goat hooves should be trimmed regularly or else this may also cause diseases to them. For every 6 – 4 weeks the goat’s hooves should be trimmed. Goats should get plenty of sunshine in the farm.
Common Goat Diseases:
- Fluke infection
- Tick, lice
- Goat pox
- Foot rot
- Peste Des Petits ruminants
- Foot and mouth diseases
- Haemorrhagic Septicemia
There are two types of vaccinations which can cure the diseases:
Profitable Goat Farming Tips:
- The one who is raising the farm should have basic knowledge of goat farms and goat breeds.
- While selecting the breed we should select good and effective breed.
- The female goat is known as doe.
- The male goat is known as buck.
- The female kids are known as Doelings.
- The male kids are known as Bucklings.
- The goats belong to the herd.
- The goats should be kept in a market where they we get high returns while trading them.
- The farmers should make the goats their first priority while farming them.
- The farm should also have a safety kit.
- If there is any change in the behavior and physical appearance of goats they should be vaccinated by consulting the doctors.