Goat Farming in South Africa:
The following information about Goat Farming in South Africa.
Introduction to Goat Farming in South Africa
Goat is known as ‘Poor man’s cow in most parts of the world and is also a very important component in the dry land farming system. Marginal or undulating lands are not suitable for other types of livestock animals such as cow or buffalo, goat is the best alternative. South African typography and climate are very well suited for goat farming business. With very low investments goat rearing can be made into a profitable venture for small and marginal farmers in South Africa. Goat farming in South Africa contributes a lot to the national economy. Goat farming in South Africa is one of the largest agriculture sectors and goat are reared with other livestock such as sheep and cattle. Most of the rural areas of South Africa depends on goat farming for food and social security. Commercial goat farming in South Africa requires goat management skills.You can attend goat training classes and visit nearby goat farms in South Africa. There are certain steps you must follow in large-scale goat meat production. Let us discuss more in upcoming sections.
Who can start the Goat Farming in South Africa
- Small and marginal farmers.
- Landless people who are interested in goat farming business.
- People with good grazing area for pasture.
- Farmers who want to earn extra income along with other livestock.
- People who are interested in large-scale goat meat production.
Reasons and Advantages to starting a Goat Farming in South Africa
- You can find highly productive goat breeds throughout South Africa.
- Excellent access to grazing since South Africa has huge drylands.
- Goat farming requires low capital investment and quick returns compared to other livestock business.
- Goats are social animals and can be raised easily with other livestock.
- Goats can be reared for meat, milk, skin or fiber hence it is considered as a multi-utility animal.
- Goats can produce excellent manure which can be used for growing any other agriculture crops.
- Goat farming set up is easy and maintenance of commercial goat farm is low than any other livestock such as dairy farming business or poultry farming business.
- The simple and small shed is enough and can expand as your business grow.
- Goat farming is proven profitable venture under stall-fed conditions.
- A high prolific rate of goats is another advantage in commercial goat farming.
- You can have year around job and can provide local employment thus making the goat farming business as part of the national economy.
- Goat meat is lean & has low in fats and high in proteins.
- Goat meat is preferred by all religious people in the world.
- Goats do not need extensive marketing and can be sold and cashed anytime.
Goat breeds suitable for rearing in South Africa
- Boer goat (Excellent meat goat breed).
- Angora goat (Famous breed in Eastern Karoo).
- Nubian goat.
- Saanen goat.
- Pygmy goat.
- Kalahari Red goat.
- Indigenous Veld Goat.
- Northern Cape.
- Speckled (Skilder).
- Kaokoland goat
- British Alpine.
- Nguni Type Goats (Mbuzi).
Selection of goat breeds for Goat Farming in South Africa
Goat breed plays a major role in commercial goat farming success. One should be aware of profitable goat breeds in South Africa. Consider the following factors while selecting goats for your farm.
Does (female goats)
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- Make sure to have good kidding percentage at least size of 2 to 3 in a single birth.
- Goats selected should mature at 6 to 9 months of age.
Bucks (male goats)
- You must look for Male goat breeds which have tall with the broad chest and slender body.
- Make sure these male goats mature at age of 9 to 12 months.
- Avoid selecting sick and old goats. Select goat kids with good body weight at 6 months of age.
- Make sure to select from the dam of 2 to 3 kidding size.
It is recommended to have your vet at the time of goat breed selection.
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Feeding management of Goat Farming in South Africa
|Feed Ingredients||Kid ration in grams||Growing Ration in grams||Lactating Goat Ration in grams||Pregnant goat Ration in grams|
|Total||100 grams||100 grams||100 grams||100 grams|
- Goat kids should be provided with 50 to100 grams of concentrate feed for first 9 to10 weeks.
- For growing goats, concentrate feed should be provided 100 to 150 grams daily for 3 to 10 months.
- In case of pregnant goats, concentrate feed should be provided up to 200 grams daily.
- Milch goats producing 1 kg milk should be provided 300 to 325 grams of concentrated feed daily
- Mineral blocks with rich copper of 1000 to 1250 ppm should be provided in the goat shed for healthy growth and quick body weight gain.
Breeding Management for Goat Farming in South Africa
- For a profitable goat farming in South Africa, there should be at least three kidding for two years.
- Goat breeds having higher weight gain in short period of time or faster growth rate and larger size should be used for a breeding purpose.
- One-year-old female goats should be used for breeding.
- Female goats should be bred after 3 months of kidding then only there will be three kidding for two years.
- Usually, goats come into heat or estrus period on an average of every 19 to 21 days and the heat will last for 24 to 72 hours.
- What is the sign or symptoms of heat or estrus in goats? female goats become vocal and constant tail wagging from side to side. Apart from this, the vulva will appear slightly swollen and reddened and the area around the tail may look wet and dirty because of discharge. You can also observe the decreased feed intake and an increased frequency of urination.
- Female goats can be bred 12 to 18 hours after the starting the estrus or heat symptoms.
- In some goats, the estrous or heat period will last up to 3 days. In this case, they should be bred again on the following day.
- The gestation period of a goat is approximately 145 to 150 days.
Deworming for Goat Farming in South Africa
- Make sure deworming is carried out in female goats before the breeding process starts. The goats affected with worms look very dull and weak.
- Goat kids should be dewormed at one month of age. The life cycle of worms is 3 weeks, so de-worming again at 2 months of goat age is recommended.
- Pregnant goats should be dewormed 2 to 3 weeks before kidding.
- Female goats in early pregnancy (up to 2 months) should not be dewormed to avoid abortion.
Vaccinations for Goat Farming in South Africa
- Goat kids should be provided the first dose of Enterotoxaemia and Tetanus vaccination at 2 months of age and again at 3 months of age.
- Female goats should be provided with Enterotoxaemia and Tetanus vaccination four to six weeks before the breeding season and four to six weeks before kidding.
- Male goats should be vaccinated with Enterotoxaemia and Tetanus once in a year.
- Talk to your veterinary doctor for recommended vaccination in goat farming.
Read about Goat Vaccination Schedule.
Housing or Shelter for Goat Farming in South Africa
Deep litter system
- A small shed with good cross ventilation is sufficient to keep a small group of goats. goat housing depends on the number of animals and other requirements. However c, re should be taken to protect the goats from external predators.
- Make sure the litter height is at least 6 centimeters.
- You can use litter material of sawdust, paddy husk, and groundnut shell. Place this material uniformly on the housing floor.
- The litter material on the shed floor has to be turned periodically to prevent the foul smell in the house.
- Make sure to change the litter material once in every 2 weeks.
- When it comes to floor space, each adult goat requires about 15 sq.ft area for free movement.
- You should take care to prevent the house from external parasitic infestation.
- You can expect 1 tonne of goat manure in a year.
- Wooden plank or wire mesh is recommended to place about 3 to 4 feet from the house ground level.
- Expect less parasitic infestation in this goat rearing method.
Raising methods of Goat Farming in South Africa
- This type of goat raising method is preferred where grazing lands are limited. In this method, goats are usually fed intensively with green fodder crops and concentrate feed after grazing.
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- Goats are fed with green fodder and concentrate feed in the shed. You can assume as this is a stall-fed goat rearing system.
- No grazing is carried in this method.
- Goathouse maybe of deep litter system or raised platform system.
Goat Insurance for Goat Farming in South Africa
- In any commercial goat farming, to prevent any losses due to sudden disease spreads, All the goats must be insured through General Insurance companies.
- Insurance amounts can be claimed if the death of the goats occurs due to accidents or diseases.