Introduction to Goat Farming in Punjab:
The following information is about Goat Farming In Punjab.
The goat farming is one of the sub-sectors of the agriculture in India. Small farmers can improve their income by rearing goats. The investment is very low at the initial stages, but most importantly, we need to set up a farm for the goats with a little high investment. As the goat breeds are prolific they mature in 10 – 12 months. By encouraging different breeds, the farmer gets more profitable because breeding helps in increased population of goats. Not only the meat of the goat, but also other products like milk, and fleece etc. are also in high demand. In Punjab the goat population is approximately 2.75 Lakhs. Districts where the goat population is high are Jalandhar, Ferozepur, Sangrur, Muktsar, Amritsar, Bathindha, and Ludhiana. Farmers should have some knowledge and understanding so as to undertake good goat farming business.
Scope and Importance of Goat farming in Punjab and National Economy
In India, farmers get loans and subsidies for the goat farming business. By visiting nearby rural, commercial or co – operative banks, one can know the schemes and financial assistance provided to the farmers. The bank releases loans and subsidies based on the size of the project and the region of the farm. This financial support is provided to the farmers through NABARD. The banks don’t take any interest from the farmers in the beginning. Note: For more details and exact information, visit the official website of NABARD.
Advantages of starting Goat Farming In Punjab
- The investment in the initial stages of goat farming is very low.
- The accommodation, which is required by the goats is very less because the size of the goat is small.
- Occurrence of diseases in goats is less.
- Compared to the cow milk the goat milk is easier to digest because it has small homogenised and fat globules.
- The cholesterol is very low in the goat’s flesh.
- Storage of goat milk is very easy.
- In a day, the goat can be milked several times.
- Goat manure is 2.5 times richer than the cow manure; it contains nitrogen and phosphoric acid.
Goat Breeds of Punjab
- Beetal Goat
- Dera Din Panah Goat
- Hairy Goat
- Kajli Goat or Pahari Goat
- Nachi Goat
- Pothwari Goat
- Teddy Goat
Goat Feed Management
The feed plays a vital role in goat farming; the health and growth of the goat completely depend upon the feed. Therefore, the feed which is provided to the goats should be good and efficient. The general feed for the goats is hay, Chaffhaye, Minerals, Kitchen scrap, Garden scarp and Grain feed. The feed troughs and waterer should be maintained hygienically. The equipment which is required for the feed is food buckets, feed storage containers, hay manager, mineral feeder and water buckets.
The goats should be provided with fresh and clean water all the time. Water buckets should be kept onto a platform so that the floor doesn’t get wet while drinking or while when accidently kicked or pooped in. When the floor gets wet there is a risk of the goats getting injured so a little care should be taken. In winters, the goat should be provided with warm water.
Tree fodders for Goat Farming In Punjab
Concentrate feed ingredients for Goat Farming In Punjab
- Broken rice
- Groundnut cake
Goat Housing Management
The housing of goats is not at all a serious problem, as they can be accommodated in a small place. Goats should be provided with good facility and comforts. For the intensive system of production the goat housing system is most important. The aim of housing for the goats is to protect them from harsh animals, uneven climatic conditions and also for the security purposes.
- The comfort of the goat is most important factor for the goat housing.
- The rain water should never enter the farm.
- For taking rest, sufficient and comfortable space should be provided.
- Almost in all the seasons the goats should be provided with warm water because the goats are afraid of cold water.
- The drainage of the farm should be maintained properly.
- The house should be clean and hygienic
- The floor should never be wet otherwise it may cause the goats to skid and get injured.
- The house should be good at ventilation and air inlet and outlet.
Goat Breeding Management
For the general breed management of the goats, the ratio that should be maintained at the breeding process is 1:20 male and female respectively; inbreeding should be strictly avoided. To avoid inbreeding male goats should be exchanged or replaced in every two years. Depending upon the body condition of indigenous breeds the breeding ewe should be 18 – 24 months. High lamb loss and weakling occur when the breeding is done with too young ewes. The weight of the ewe should be less at the time of breeding; the body weight of the ewe should be less than the adult weight of the breed. The breeding season of the goats is in February – March, May – June, and September to October. The male and female goats should be prepared for breeding before the breeding season.
Goat Diseases and Vaccinations
In general, the occurrence of diseases in the goats is very low. Some common diseases that affect the goats due to several factors like improper sanitation etc. are Anthrax, merits, mange, tapeworm, tetanus, warts, tympany, liver fluke, dermatitis, eye condition, goat pox, heat stress, foot rot etc. The health issues will be in control when the goats are fed with good quality pasture, nutrient food, sanitation and sunshine in the farm. The goat hooves should be trimmed about every 4 – 6 weeks. The goats will be infected by bacteria or virus if we neglect the trimming of the hooves.
The goat should be observed daily, if there are any symptoms of diseases, then they should be treated with proper medicine under the supervision of the vet. The regular consultation of the vet is also very important for the maintenance of a healthy farm.
Read: Dairy Goat Breeds.