Introduction to Goat Farming in Odisha:
The following information is about Goat Raising or Goat Farming In Odisha.
In the state of Odisha 25 % of the rural population’s livelihood are completely dependent on goat farming. Predominantly goats are reared by marginal farmers, lesser extent farmers and landless people for their livelihood. Different germplasm famous and native to Odisha are Ganjam, Raighar, Black Bengal and Badavihana, these are capable of adapting to the local conditions and nature very well.
The rearing of indigenous species in a small number of individual families are operated and observed by traditional goat husbandry systems. In conventional systems the productivity is less and the financial investment inputs in such type of ventures are near to zero.
Scope and Importance of Goat farming in National Economy:
In India, goat farming business is a gaining momentum. Because, there is gradual increase in meat lovers so every year there is a regular increase in demand for the meat and also price of meat increases giving higher income to the farmers. Goat farming provides a good profit for the unemployed people; there are people who want to invest in goat farming and also some people who want to experiment on the goat farming business.
For the people who are financially backward, the government and central government would support them by subsidies and loans which will help them in investing into the goat farming business.
A bank that supports the people for loans and subsidy is NABARD (National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development) which is set by RBI. Through Animal Resource Development and Animal Husbandry Department, loan and subsides can be obtained from NABARD bank. There are many other banks that support the farmers for loans and subsidies with a feasibility certificate from a local veterinary office.
The advantages of starting Goat Farming Business:
- For biomedical and physiological research the goat is an excellent animal.
- Nitrogen and phosphoric acid are present in the goat manure, it is 2.5 times richer than cow manure.
- Nature of goats is very friendly.
- The financial background of farmer can be improved by goat farming.
- The population at the farm can be increased by breeding goats.
- Investment in feeding and housing of goats is very less.
- The farm has many beneficial points, if the farmer encourages the breeding of goat.
- For poor farmers, goat farming is one of the good occupations.
- Goats require very less space for housing.
- Meat and milk of the goat have no religious taboo.
- Goat farming business is easy when compared to other livestock farm business.
- Compared to other livestock’s animals the goats are better at tolerating the diseases.
- Even the milk of goat has high demand.
- The gestation period of goat is very short.
- As goat stores the milk in its body so it is called as walking refrigerator. The goat can be milked numerous times in a day.
- Maintenance of the goats is very cheap, availability of them is also easy, and they have a good friendly disposition.
- Aliments are very few caused to the goats.
- The size of the goat is small and the age of slaughter is very younger.
- The milk has high content of B – complex vitamins.
- For preparing various milk products the goat milk is used.
- Hair of goat can be used for manufacturing the ropes and rugs.
- Meat of goat has much demand and fat content in less.
- To be more successful in any goat famring busienss, you must be aware of goat basics. You can learn these by attending any goat farming training in Odisha.
Goat Breeds of Odisha:
- Malkangiri goat
- Koraput Hill goat
- Ganjam Hill goat
- Raighar goat
- Narayanapatnam goat
- Black Bengal goat
- Phulbani goat
- Dorangi goat
Goat Feed Management:
In every goat business, feeding plays a vital role. Feed should be provided timely and in appropriate ratio. The development of health in goats can be seen when they eat good and efficient food. Additional vitamins and minerals should be supplied in appropriate amounts apart from the forage.
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Concentrate feed ingredients:
- Groundnut cake
- Broken rice
- Fodder Maize
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Goat Housing Management:
Housing for goats is not a serious problem. But it is a must to provide comfort and facilities for goats to gain more profit. In an intensive system of production, goat housing is very important. Goats are similar to us in growth and production. The housing is basically aimed for protecting the animals from uneven climates and predators.
- The most important factor of housing is comfort of goats.
- We should never permit the rain water to enter the house.
- Enough space is required for taking rest.
- In all seasons the goats should be provided with warm water, because they are afraid of cold water.
- The housing, which is constructed or selected should be at a higher elevation and should not be affected by floods.
- The floor should be always dry.
- Inside the house ventilation and air flow should be good.
- The drainage should be maintained properly.
- The house should be strongly constructed using concrete and bamboo sticks.
Basic requirements of housing:
- A good water supply
- Air inlet and outlet
- Flooring (It shouldn’t be slippery)
- Good atmosphere
- Greenery around the farm
Goat Breeding Management:
In the goat farming business, breeding is very important as it increases the population in the farm. The goats are raised for their meat, fiber and milk. The breeding is done through two methods:
- Natural insemination
- Artificial insemination
- The breed should be identified as per their temperature and bloodlines.
- The age factor for breeding in female goats is 5 – 17 months.
- The fall season is the best season for breeding in goats.
- It has two heat cycles with an interval of 18 – 20 days.
- The ovulation period remains for ½ – 1 ½ days.
- For the successful fertilization timely mating is very important.
- Goat ratio should be 1:25 i.e. 1 male and 25 females.
- The gestation period of the goats is 150 – 155 days.
Goat Health Care Management:
Goats suffer from various diseases, which are caused due the viruses, bacteria and parasites. The common diseases that the goats are affected with are:
- Big head
- Eye conditions
- Foot rot
- Foot and mouth disease virus
- Heat stress
- Goat pox
- Hemorrhagic septicarmia
- Liver fluke
- Parasitic gastroenteritis
- Scabby mouth
- Salmonella infection
- Urea poisoning
- Trace element deficiency
Goat Diseases and Vaccinations:
- 4th month pregnant does and Kids of 1 month old: They should be vaccinated with CDT to protect them from tetanus and exterotoxemia disease.
- All the goats should be vaccinated annually with the CDT.
- All Goats: For every 2 – 4 weeks, 2 doses of vaccine are given to the goats for fighting against the diseases like Mannheimia, Haemolytica and pneumonia.
- Kids: 6 month old kids should be vaccinated with CLA to protect them from Cornybacterium pseudotunerculosis.
- Kids: All the goats should be vaccinated with CLA annually, as it is a booster for them.
- Annually the goats should be vaccinated with Rabies to fight against Rabies.
- The does in the first 28 – 45 days of their pregnancy should be vaccinated with Chlamydia to protect them from Chlamydia abortion.
While giving the vaccination these guidelines should be followed:
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- The manufacturing instruction should be followed at the time of vaccination.
- Vaccines should not be mixed with any other vaccines.
- We should maintain a record of vaccines, which is given to the goats.
- The booster shots shouldn’t be delayed for good results.
- On each goat new syringe and sterile needle should be used.
- Vaccination should be given when they are healthy, to minimise the chance of the adverse reaction.
- The needle, which should be sued on adult should be 1 -3/4 inch needle and 20 gauges.
- For kids ½ inch needle should be used.
Goat Farming Tips:
- In the farm a first kit should be maintained.
- Equipment which is required in the farm should be kept.
- For storing food, a storage room should be used.
- Hygiene is very important to maintain a farm.
- To know and observe the goat’s health regular visit of vet is needed.
- During summer, goats should be given or provided mineral water with salt.
- Efficient and healthy breeds should be selected while farm setup.
- We should buy both buck and doe.
- While buying the goats, some precautions should be taken
- There should be a basic knowledge of raising the goats.
- For goats the comforts and facilities should be arranged efficiently and effectively.
Some of the popular goat farms in Odisha:
- A1 Aziz Goat Farming, Bhadrak Odisha.
- The Goat Farm, Deogarh, Odisha.
- Ankeeta Goat Rearing Farm Babanpur, Odisha.