Introduction to Goat Farming in India:
The following guide is about Goat Farming In India.
Goat Farming business has been popular all over the world and the goat meat has excellent demand in India, hence there are many people who are trying thier luck in goat famring in india; the unemployed farmers will be more benefited due to goat farming. There will be higher returns in goat farming. For the unemployed people the goat farming has become the basic source of income and also it will be a good employment for the farmers. If the farmer has chosen agriculture as occupation then the farmer will be employed seasonally because the agricultural farming is done as per the season. But the goat farming can be done throughout the year. As it also gives high returns to the farmers. In India, not only the goat breeds have high demand the products of goat also have high demand like milk, meat manure and fiber.
For the rural people as they lead a socio – economic life, the goat farming plays a vital role, for them goat farming is the main source of income. The goat farming is mainly done by the labours, landless and also by the marginal farmers. It is considered that the goat population in India is approximately 4 Lakhs. When compared to other countries, India is the largest producers of meat, manure, fiber and milk. Along with the native breeds of India the neighbouring states native breeds are also reared.
Scope and Importance of Goat Farming in India:
In the nation’s economy goat farming plays a major role, it is considered that the total goat population in India is 70.75 million. It might be a small employment in the initial stages, but gradually the demand and also the returns will increase. When meat lovers are increasing gradually the demand for the goats is also increasing. For setting up the goat farm the initial investment is also low.
Loans and Subsidies for Goat Farming in India:
In India, goat farming is the most profitable business, when compared to other countries; India is the largest producers of meat and milk. For the economically down people the state government and central government give them the assistance. For the farmers there are many schemes which are outlined as loans and subsidies. The loans and subsidies are sanctioned as visiting the project size and also the region of the farm.
For knowing more information of loans and subsidies for Goat farming in India, one can visit the nearest banks like co –operative or rural banks or by visiting the official site of NABARD we get more information.
Role of Goat Farming in Economy and Contribution of India:
Employment: For the unskilled, less literate, low income and labour it will be a good employment and also a good source of income.
Storage: The goats are good storing animals as they can store their milk, so the goats are called as walking refrigerator.
Food: The milk and meat which are extracted from the goats also have high demand in the market as these are used in our daily routine.
Weed Control: By farming a goat, it helps the agricultural farmer by controlling the weeds in the farmer. As goat is herbivores animal it consumes the weed as its feed.
Dung and Waste Material: The dug and waster material of the goat also has high demand in the market as it is used as farmyard manure in agricultural farmers.
Fiber or skin: By using this fiber or skin of the goat belts, pelts, hides, hair and wool is prepared as it is also one type of income.
Advantages of Goat Farming in India:
- The investment on a goat farm in initial stages is very low.
- In general, goats are described as social animals.
- They easy to handle.
- In the market the goat milk has high demand.
- These goats are slaughtered in a very young age.
- The production can be estimated as per the unit of investment.
- In hilly areas these goats are used for the hauling.
- This goat milk helps in curing the some diseases like diabetes, cough, and asthma.
- For goats the housing requirement is very low.
- Not only the goats have high demand in the market, but also the products of goats like milk, meat, fleece and manure also has high demand in the market.
- Goats can be fed with any type of crude and roughages of poor quality, as the goats have well digestibility.
Goat Breeds of India:
There are many goat breeds available in India depending on the region.
Read this for: Indian Goat Breeds Information.
Goat Feed Management:
The feed is the main source of energy for the goats. In goat farming business feed management plays a fundamental role. For the farmer who is rearing the goats should have a basic knowledge of feed which should be fed to the goats. For the pregnant goats and milch goats the farmers should care a little more than the other goats. For every goat age, there will be different food. As per their age feed should be given to the goat. The feed differs for every age and also the season. To the goats timely feed should be given.
Hay: The hay is an important source of nutrients for the goats. The hay which should be fed to the goat should not contain mold in it. The feed which should be fed to the goats should be of good quality. The weedy hay, which is fed to the goats is a good source of nutrients. The hay which should be fed to the goats is Lespedeza, clover and alfalfa.
Pastures and Browsing: The pastures and browsing are good and essential source of nutrients to the goats. There are high amounts of energies and proteins are present in pastures. By consuming the pastures goat’s digestibility and tastiness will be improved. The pasture, which can be fed to the goats are millet, clover, grass, Sudan grass, Bahia grass and grain.
Gardens and Kitchen Scrap: the goats can be fed with garden scarp as they contain high amount of nutrients. The tomato ends, banana peels, garlic skins, orange peels, onion peels, etc. these can be fed to the goats.
Grains: The goats can be fed with grains up to 12 – 16 % of the course. The grains like millet, soya, oats, rye, moil, and barley.
- Maize (Corn)
- Skimmed milk powder
- Groundnut cake
- Rice polish
- Broken rice
Legume Fodder crops:
- Hedge Lucerne
Goat Housing Management:
For intensive production of goats the goat farming, housing is very essential. The requirement for the goats are very less, the goats give maximum profits as we should ensure them the facilities and comforts.
- Goat house should be dry and hygienic.
- There should be good ventilation into the farm, the number of labour, which is used for the farm is also very less.
- Goats need some space for taking a rest, so while constructing the farm a little more space should be left to the goats.
- All the waste should be collected in the farm. Almost in all seasons the goats need warm water as they are afraid of warm water.
- The floor, which is used for the flooring in the farm should not be slippery or wet. This might cause injuries to the goats.
- In goat farm the drainage facility should be good.
- Goats should be safe in housing so that they should be protected from the harsh animals and also from the inoculated climate with environmental stress.
- Goat housing should be constructed at a higher elevation so that the floods can’t affect the farm.
Basic Requirements of Goat Housing in India:
- Good location of housing / sheds
- Food troughs
- Proper drainage
- Milk barns
- Air inlet and outlet
Goat Breeding Management in India:
In breeding there are two types of breeding techniques. They are
- Natural insemination: These are not suitable for the commercial goat farming and also taken more time in breeding.
- Artificial insemination: For commercial farming of goat this artificial insemination is more suitable and doesn’t take more time. But it more cost efficient.
- Summer season:
- Heating season (March – April)
- Kidding season (August – September)
- Rainy season:
- Heating season (June – July)
- Kidding season (November – December)
- Winter season:
- Heating season (October – November)
- Kidding season (January – February)
Breeding Ratio in Goat Farming:
The ratio of the breeding should be 1: 25 i.e. one male and 25 females.
Gestation Period of Goats:
Goat’s gestation period is very short of 150 – 155 days.
Breeding Age of Goats:
At the age of 5 – 17 months the breeding should be encouraged. The best age for the breeding is 10 – 12 months. The breeding should never be encouraged at a young age as it can cause loss to the business.
Preparation for Goat kids:
For kids the bedding should be arranged with straw. The floor should always be dry.
Identification of goat breed:
The breed should be identified and also its health can be analyzed by its bloodline and body temperature.
Breeding management of Goats:
The age of the goat can be considered as the unit of production.
Preparation for Goat Breeding:
All the goats should be vaccinated, dewormed and then the hooves of the goats should be trimmed.
Goat Diseases Vaccinations:
The goat caring should be taken very seriously; it is one of the main management in the goat farming business. The goats should be fed with good quality of feed. The goats should receive good amount of nutrients and also they need plenty of sunshine. The goat farm should be also be clean as this will reduce the disease occurrence in the farm.
- If there are any symptoms of diseases, then the farm should consult the vet.
- We should consult the doctor if there is any change in physical behaviour.
- These are the symptoms of diseases, abnormal temperature, nose discharge, appetite, labored breathing, and diarrhea.
- The goat hooves should be trimmed regularly for every 4 – 6 weeks.
- We should never neglect the hooves as these might cause more loss to the goat farm.
- Goat pox
- Fluke infection
- Peste Des Petits ruminants
- Foot and Mouth Diseases
- Haemorrhagic Septicemia
- Foot rot
- Tick, lice, etc.
- Live or Active Vaccinations
- Inactive Vaccinations
Live or Active Vaccinations:
These vaccines will target the organism, directly until the organism loses its virulence. These vaccines are capable of holding or retaining the, to provoke the immune of the goat which is targeted.
The inactive vaccinations are also called as dead vaccines. These vaccines target the organism directly as this will treat the organism until it gets inactive. These will also produce the toxins and then these toxins are called as toxoid inactivation. These will help the goats to produce their immune to the target the goat.
Tips for Goat Farming in India:
- If there is a change in behaviour of goat, then the farmer should consult the vet doctor.
- The farmer should never take own decisions of vaccines as this might cause loss to the business.
- If a new farm is starting, then the farmer should know the basic knowledge of rearing goats, goat breeds and also about the goat breed.
- The goats should be sold in a market where there demand is high, at the trading time.
- If there is any requirement of equipment, all those setup should be arranged in goat farm.
- The treatment or vaccinations should be given to goats by consulting the vet.
- The goats prefer more facilities and comforts.
- The farm should always be hygienic.
- The goats should be observed regularly and should care them properly.
- The goats are called as social animals.
- A first aid kit should also be maintained in a goat farm.
- In the farm we should also main a storage room for storing the feed, manure, fleece and also the milk.
- At the time of purchasing a goat, the farm should take some precautions and should also know the health of the goat.
- The housing of the farm should be strong so that it can tolerate any time of climatic conditions.
- The goats belong to the herd.