Goat Farming in Gujarat
The following information is about Goat Farming in Gujarat.
Goat farming is one of the good employments for the unemployed people; there are many benefits and also high returns in goat farming. Goat is becoming popular day by day, it is one of the highly profitable businesses in India. As the population increases the business is also increasing rapidly in India. The goat is called as Poor Man’s Cow. By goat farming, we can get some products like milk, fiber and manure; these products also have high demand in the market.
We believe that the total goat population in Gujarat is 46.40 Lakhs, 70% of the small, marginal and landless farmers rear the goats. The population of goats is 130 % more than the sheep population. The goat has a remarkable high efficiency of producing the milk and meat. The breed, which is selected for rearing should be good and efficient under all circumstances. The main objective of the goat farm should be conservation and propagation of pure breed. It is considered that the goat economics is also 160% more than the sheep economic. Some breeds of Rajasthan and Maharashtra are also reared in Gujarat.
Scope and Importance of Goat Farming in National Economy:
In the national economy goat farming plays a vital role, believed that 70.25 millions goat is present in India. In the initial stages, it might be a small employment, but gradually the demand and also the returns will be increasing.
Importance of Goat Farming:
India is the 2nd largest goat population in the world. The goats are reared by both men and women in India. The situation of agriculture varies and socio – economic are numerous in production systems in our country. These are the classifications they are:
- Extensive production
- Intensive production
- Semi – intensive production
Role in Economy and Contribution of goats to people:
- Income: For the landless people it will be a good income and for the married people the goats or other live stock animals are given as a gift.
- Employment: The goat farming will be a good source of livelihood for the less literate, un-skilled and low income farmers.
- Food: Milk and meat are the products of the goats, which are consumed by the people all over the world.
- Fiber or Skin: With the help of fiber or skin, they make many things like pelts, hides, wool and hair.
- Storage: The goats store their milk in themselves and they are also known as walking refrigerator; they can store for a long time and they can be milked for numerous times in a day.
- Dung and Waste Material: The other products of the goats are waste material and dung of goats as these also have high demand as the dung and the waste material is used as farmyard manure for the plants while cultivating them.
- Weed Control: These goats can help us with weed control these will control the weeds, unwanted plants, bushes biologically.
- Sports: These are also used in cultural competitions and sports.
Loans and subsidies for Goat Farming:
Among all other livestock the goat farming is one of the most profitable business. India is one of the largest producers of meat and milk. The demand for the meat and milk is increasing gradually as the meat lovers are increasing. For the farmers who are economically back they are supported economically by the central and state government. The government holds some schemes and subsidies to support farmers in undertaking the goat farming business. The NABARD provides assistance to the farmers; the government provides the funds to NABARD. Nearby rural and co-operative banks (working for the NABARD) will give us more information related to the schemes and subsidies. The loans are sanctioned as per the size of the project and the region of the farm; they are released after the project is sanctioned. The exact details and information can be known by visiting the official website of NABARD.
Advantages of Goat Farming:
- All the health problems can be cured by goat milk like cough, asthma, diabetes etc.
- The goat milk is very cheap.
- The milk has high demand and as it contains less fat.
- Milk is very nutritious.
- Goats can tolerate all types of climates when compared to other livestock.
- Goats can be handled easily.
- Goats are very social animals.
- Housing demands of the goats are very few; they don’t need a separate house as they can adjust happily with their owners or other live stocks.
- These are very easy and cheap to maintain.
- When they are small and young in age they can be slaughtered.
- Goat milk is good for digestion and they are very nutritious.
- These goats can be reared by landless agricultural laborers, children and ladies.
- A goat gives us many by – products like milk, meat, fiber and manure.
- The goats are used in hilly areas for hauling light loads.
- The goats give more production as per unit of investment.
Goat Breeds of Gujarat:
Gujarat – Rajasthan Border Breeds:
Goat Feed Management:
Goats are known as ruminant animals as they function multi – purposely. For goat profits in goat farming the feed management is one of the great secrets. The farmer should have basic knowledge of goats and goat farms to achieve success in the business easily. For goats the feed varies with different ages and also in different seasons, besides the natural feed goat should be provided with vitamins and minerals.
- Garden and Kitchen Scarp: For the goat the kitchen and garden scarp are the best diet. Kitchen scraps like orange peels, garlic peels, onion peels tomato ends and banana peels, etc. The waste cutting of the vegetables and fruits are used for feeding the goats. The goats can’t consume the egg shells so they should not be provided to the goats. Along with all these we should provide them some nutrients.
- Minerals: goats should be given additional supplements.
- Hay: Hay is one of the good sources of energy to the goats. Hay which doesn’t have the mold should be fed to the goats. Best and high quality of hay should be provided as a feed to the goats. Goats can consume all types of hay like from the cheap to the high quality hay. Hay which is weedy contain high amount of nutrients.hay is enriched with high mount of protein like clover, lespedeza, and alfalfa.
- Pastures and Browsing: These are one of the most efficient and sources of energy and nutrients for the goats. They are enriched with high amount of proteins and energy. These help the goat in digestion and tastiness. These pastures are mixture of Bahia grass, grain, grass, clover, sorghum, Sudan grass, and millet.
- Grains: The kids and pregnant female goats should be fed with the creep feed and complementary feed. The grains that can be fed to the goats are barley, moil, rye, millets, and corn, etc. Cereal grains can be fed to provide the goat carbons or energy. In case of not finding the feed we can feed the goat upto 12 – 16 % course of grains. By providing the creep feed and complementary feed the weight of the goat can be improved.
- Vitamins: Additionally, vitamins should be provided to the goat along with the feed.
A feed which should not be fed to the goats are papers, cat feed and dog feed.
Goat Housing Management:
For intensive production of goat the goat housing is very important. For the goats the farmer or the rearer should ensure the facilities and comforts of goats for maximum profits. The goats are animals, but in some situations, there are similarities with human beings, so the goats require some physiological requirement for good growth and production wise. The goat needs housing so that the goat can be secured from the harsh animals, uneven climates and also the inculcated environmental stress. As there is no calculation of the climate variation, it might change anytime to windy climate, high or low temperature climate, rainy climate, precipitation in the air or humidity in the air.
- The goat manure also has high demand so it should be collected and stored.
- Bedding is not required for the goats.
- The farm or the house should be dry and clean.
- The less number of laborers is required for cleaning and maintaining the farm.
- Basic Requirement of Goat Housing:
- Good location of sheds / housing
- Storage (Manure storage, Feed storage room, Feed storage, and Milk Storage room)
- Air inlet and outlet
- Proper drainage
- Milk barns
- Floor (That doesn’t get lose our footing)
- Food troughs
Goat Breeding Management:
The goat breeding is one of the important process of goat farming business. The population of the farm will be increased when the farmer encourages breeding. The farmer will also be profitable due to the breeding. The production of milk, meat and fiber also increases gradually when the population of goats is increased.
There are two types of breeding techniques.
Natural breeding: The natural process takes more time for breeding.
Artificial Inseminations: The artificial insemination costs more, but the artificial insemination is more preferred by the farmers in goat farming breeding. The goats are capable of adapting themselves to all types of weather conditions. This breeding will help us in obtaining maximum profits.
Goat Diseases Vaccinations Management:
If there is no proper care for the goats it can lead to a large loss of goats and also the kids. The farm should be maintained hygienically. Goats should be clean and sanitized. Good and proper quality of food should be provided to the goat. Plenty of sunshine and a good quality of pasture is required for the goats and this causes less illness issues. For every 6 – 4 weeks the hooves of the goat should be trimmed so as to prevent bacterial or fungal infections. The physical activities and behavior should be observed or monitored daily. The diseases that affect the most of the goats are:
- Foot rot
- Haemorrhagic Septicemia
- Goat pox
- Foot and mouth diseases
- Peste Des Petits ruminants
Ecto – parasitic Infestations:
- Tick, lice, etc.
Endo – parasitic Diseases:
- Fluke infection
Goat vaccines are of 2 types they are:
- Active vaccine or Live vaccine
- Inactive Vaccine
Active or Live Vaccine: These vaccine fights against the organism until the organism loses their virulence. These are also capable of retaining or holding them to provoke their immune to the targeted goat.
Inactive Vaccine: these inactive vaccines are also called as dead vaccines. These vaccines target the organism directly until the organism is dead. This type of inactive vaccines produces toxins. The produced toxins can be used for the vaccination purpose, and then the toxic vaccine is called as Toxoid inactive vaccine. These vaccines also induce immunity to the goats.
Goat Farming Tips for beginners:
- The farmer should have basic knowledge about the goats and goat farming.
- While selecting the breed we should select a good and efficient breed.
- The farm should be maintained hygienically.
- The housing facility for the farm should be good at security, ventilation, inlet, outlet and drainage levels.
- These goats belong to the herd.
- The farm should be constructed in such way that it can tolerate all types of climates.
- While selling the goats they should sell in a good market where the demand is high and also the income is high.
- Goats should be a major priority to the farmer.
- The female goats are called as a doe.
- The male goats are called as buck.
- The female kids are called as Doelings.
- Goat farm should preserve a first aid kit for the goats.
- Any medical reference should be taken from the vet.
- While buying and selling the goats one should be careful.