Introduction to goat farming in Chhattisgarh:
The following information is about Goat Farming in Chhattisgarh.
Goat farming is important as it provides nutritive food and good income to the famers. Chhattisgarh has three agro – climatic regions they are Chhattisgarh plains, Bastar Plateau and Northern Hill Regions. In rural areas the employment would be easy and would generate good income to the household. The goats can be reared in areas where there is good availability of herbs, shrubs; trees and water. The population of goats in Chhattisgarh is 20 % of the total animal population.
Scope and Importance of Goat farming in National Economy:
The increasing demand of goat is due to rise in the population of meat lovers. This demand along with the cost of goats is gradually increasing. For poor farmers with less capital, the state government and also central government provides financial support in the form of loans and subsidies through various schemes. In every village there is a local bank called NABARD (National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development) helping the farmers get support from the banks for investing into the business.
Objects of subsidy scheme:
- Improvement of local non-descript goat breeds.
- By breed improvement there will be good increment of milk and meat.
- For improving the monetary condition of the recipient.
- It is aimed to increase the per capita meat availability.
Benefits of the scheme:
- Kids are produced on an Average weight of 10 – 15 kg from desi goats after 1 year.
- Weight reaches up to 15 – 20 kg, grade of Jamunapuri male goat has improved in local and desi female for breeding.
Advantages of Starting a Goat Farming Business:
- The investment in goat farming in initial stages is very low comparatively to other farms.
- These can be maintained easily when they are compared to other livestock farm business.
- Goats have very friendly nature with people.
- Housing space which is required for goats is very less.
- The gestation period is very short.
- The goat is considered as walking refrigerator as it stores milk and the goat can be milked number of times in a day.
- The goat farming is a good occupation for the poor farmers.
- Goats are capable of adapting to any agro-climatic conditions.
- They are more tolerant to diseases when compared to other livestock.
- Goat meat and milk has no religious taboo.
- There would not be more investment for the feeding and housing.
- By encouraging the goat for breeding, the farm has most beneficial points.
- Breeding helps to increase the population of goats in the farm.
- It is a good opportunity to strengthen the financial background of the farmer.
Goat Breeds of Chhattisgarh:
Some of the breeds suitbale for Chhattisgarh climate are:
- Beetal goat
- Osmanabadi goat
- Boer goat
- Jamnapari goat
- Totapari goat
- Sirohi goat
Goat Feed Management:
Usually, goats can eat any variety of food which is good for their health. We hear a lot about the goats eating everything, but it is also there that they should eat only such things which help them to improve their immune system and also give them good growth. The quality of feed is very important because we extract some by – products from them like milk, meat and fleece. So, the farmer should never compromise in the feed quality. A schedule should be followed for feeding the goats. A balanced diet should be fed to the goats with proteins, vitamins, energy, calcium, and minerals to ensure optimum production from the animals.
- After their birth they should receive colostrums and thereafter up to an age of 2 months they should be fed with the milk @ 1/10 of their body weight.
- Kids that are aged around 2 – 4 months should be fed with creep feed @ 450 grams daily along with water and green grass etc.
- The goats that are about 4 months and pregnant goats should be fed with conc. mixture @ 450 g, crude protein should be 14 – 16 %, green grass and labium.
- The does that are milking should be provided with conc. Mixture @ 350 grams for each litre of milk produced.
- In breeding season, the buck should be fed with conc. mixture @ 400 grams every day with green grass.
- Every day the goats should be provided with 450 – 680 grams of feed in a day.
Conc. mixture means Concentrate mixture. It contains Jowar, Soya bean, Maize, sorghum, groundnut cake and broken rice.
Goat House Management:
The house should have basic requirement for the goats to live comfortably. In goat farming, the shelter or housing is very important because the goats in the house stay secure in adverse climates, during nights, from predators etc.
- For housing them, the area which is selected should be at a higher elevation. So, that there would be no effect due to floods.
- The floor of the house should always be dry.
- There should be good light and frequent flow of air inside the house.
- The construction of house should be in such a way that the house should be capable of sustaining in any climatic conditions, moisture and high temperature.
- They can be constructed in many ways; it is completely dependent on the farmer’s economical status.
- The rain water should never enter the house.
- Mostly we should try to construct the house by using the bamboo sticks and concrete.
- Comfort of the goats is the most important factor.
- For taking rest there should be enough space.
- There should be regular cleaning inside the house and the house should be maintained hygienically.
- Goats should be provided with warm water in all seasons, as they are afraid of cold water.
Goat Breeding Management:
For any goat farming business, breeding is very important. The goats are raised for their milk, meat and fiber. To improve the farm population, breeding is practiced. The goats are capable of sustaining in any type of weather. Breeding can be done either through natural way or by artificial insemination. In commercial farming, artificial insemination is mostly used.
Goat should analyzed by their temperature and blood lines so as to identify the breed. It also determines the goat’s breeding efficiency.
The age of female breeding goats must be 5 – 17 months. The best time and age for breeding is at 10 – 12 months.
Season of breeding the goat:
For goats, the fall is the breeding season of goats. There will be two heat cycles in about 18 – 22 days. In early stages, if the breeding is done there would be good results of the outcome. After the estrus, ovulation usually takes place within ½ – 1 ½ days. Timely matting is very important for the successful fertilization.
The ratio of goat breeding is 1: 25 i.e. breeding is done in between 1 male and 25 female goats.
The gestation period of goats is 150 – 155 days.
Read: Goat Farming Project Report.
Goat Health Care Management:
They should be provided with sanitation, good quality pasture, nutrient food and sunshine in the house such that there would be less health issues. Hooves of the goat should be trimmed in every 4 – 6 weeks. By neglecting the hoof trimming process, the goats may get infected by virus or bacteria.
Daily monitoring of the goats should be done to observe any change in behaviour or physical activity. If there is any symptom of illness like diarrhoea, discharge from the eyes, nose discharge, appetite, limping listlessness, abnormal temperature and breathing then the farmer should consult the vet.
These are the common diseases that affect the goats. Adequate veterinary services should be available in the farm to ensure good health.
- Foot rot
- Haemorrhagic Septicemia
- Goat pox
- Peste Des Petits ruminants
- Foot and Mouth Diseases
Ecto – parasitic infestations:
- Tick, lice, etc.
Endo – parasitic diseases:
- Round worm
- Fluke infection
- Tape worm
Goat Disease Vaccinations:
In general, vaccinations are of two types they are:
- Inactive vaccines
- Live vaccines
The inactive vaccinations are also called as dead vaccine. These target the organism directly to treat them until they get inactive. These are capable of producing toxins. These toxins are used for the vaccination and are called as toxoid inactivation. These toxins are capable of inducing immunity to the goats.
These live vaccinations target the organism until they lose their virulence, but they can also hold or retain them to provoke the immune response of the target goat.
Usually, both the inactive and live vaccine require different modes of application. Before the immunity is achieved, live vaccination should be given only in a single dose. In 14 – 15 days the inactive vaccination should be given in two doses. After these 2 doses the booster shot should be given to achieve full immunity. The vaccination differs for each and every disease and before the vaccination it’s better to consult the vet and proceed upon his advice.
Goat Farming Tips:
- Only healthy goats should be selected for farming. At the time of purchasing the goats, farmer should buy both the doe and buck.
- The general terms used for a goat should be known to the farmer. A female goat is known as Doe, female babies are known as Doelings. The male goats are known as Bucks, male babies are known as Bucklings. Neutral male goats are known as Wether.
- Goats are known as social animals.
- Housing for the goats should be constructed properly.
- Caring the goat properly by treatment, preventions, and timely nutrients is essential.
- After removing the fleece from the goat, if they expose to cold climates they may fall ill, so they should be kept in warm conditions.
- Goats should be facilitated with things like water, feed, milk barn, fleece shearing barn, and proper drainage etc.
- Extra care for breeding buck, pregnant doe and kids should be taken.
- Goats should be provided with mineral and salt water, during the summer seasons.
- Regularly consultation of vet is needed, as it improves the health condition of the goat.
- The farm should be maintained hygienically.
- Equipment which is necessary for the farm should be setup.
- A store room should also be maintained for storing the food.
- And the other store room is for storing the by – products of the goats like milk, meat and fleece.
- A first aid kit should be maintained in the farm.
Some of the goat farms in Chhattisgarh.
Ali Got Farming (Wholesaler of goat farms consultancy services, goat farming service & Commercial goat farming in Raipur)
Polt No.210 ,Rda,Sanjay Nagar,Near Ratna Niwas,Raipur,
Raipur – 492001, Chhattisgarh.
RK Goat Farm
Raipur- 495692, Chhattisgarh.
C.G.Goat Farm Boirjhiti
Boirjhiti, Chhattisgarh 493195.
Al Habib Goat Farm Kathadih
Ghat Road Kathadih, Sejbahar, Raipur-Chhattisgarh – 492015,
Near Kusha Bhau Thakre Journalism College
Banarasi Village, Near Jindal shooting range,
Raipur – 492015, Chhattisgarh , India