Goat Farming In Bihar:
The following information is all about Goat Farming In Bihar.
Introduction To Goat Farming In Bihar
Goat farming in Bihar is very popular commercial livestock business as there is a huge demand for goat meat all over the state. Bihar is fifth largest goat production states in India. This state itself contributes 8% of the total goat population of India. Around 40% of Bihar people are living under poverty line, hence there is a huge scope of goat farming to meet up the gap between meat demand and meat supply. Every year, 6,00,000 goats are slaughtered in slaughterhouses, which is about 32% of total goat meat production of Bihar. In Bihar, goat farming is not well accepted business by all classes of people. In olden days, goat farming is confined only to backward people and landless people in rural areas of Bihar. However, the scenario is completely changed and goat farming is recognized as an industry and more unemployed and people who want to earn more with livestock are setting up goat farm businesses throughout Bihar. Bihar also supplies goats to other neighboring states.
There are many individuals getting profits in small scale goat farming business. Bihar has an excellent grazing area for goats for extensive farming method. However, commercial goat farming is always good with intensive (stall-fed) farming method. Goat farming in Bihar is proven and successful business. However, you must have patience for getting the results as goats take to grow compared to sheep. It takes at least 3 to 4 years to profits roll in. Investment for goat farming in Bihar depends on the flock size and your target. You can start with 2 goats and can expand the shed as you gain more experience and profits. It is more useful to know the goat basics from local goat farming training centers before starting a goat farm in Bihar.
Advantages of Goat Farming in Bihar and Why Should You Consider It?
- Bihar has vast agriculture lands for grazing area.
- You can get cheap labor in Bihar for managing your goat farm.
- You can raise Goats with other livestock in free-range conditions without any problem.
- You can get profits from meat, milk, skin, and manure since they are multi-facet animals.
- Usually, Goats require less maintenance and low inputs in terms of feed and set up cost compared to poultry and dairy farming business.
- Goat meat is a good source of protein and nutrition. It is lean when compared to beef and pork. Goat meat has excellent demand in both local and export markets.
- Goats are hardy animals can survive in any adverse climatic conditions. They can adapt to local weather very easily.
- Setting up and managing Goat farming in Bihar is easy as as women and older people can handle day to day operations on the farm.
- Goat milk is easily digestible and better better than cow milk. If you have a good marketing channel in Bihar for goat dairy, you can earn a good amount from goat milk as well.
- Setting up a Goat farming in Bihar support the local employment and can lift them from poverty line.
- The best part of Goat farming is, they produce multiple kids in a single birth, hence your goat herd on the farm can multiply in no point of time.
- Goats are friendly in nature, you can raise them as pets in your backyard earn some of your family expenses.
- Usually, Goats eat small plants, leaves, shrubs, and weeds. This can help you to keep the field weed free for the next crop.
- Goats produce manure as well, hence you can use this decomposed manure in any organic farming.
- Goat skin has excellent demand in Bihar as the quality of goat skin is good.
- Goats will have early reproduction and less gestation period.
- Goat farming is a proven and successful business in Bihar. You should not have a second thought for starting it.
- Usually, Goat farming needs less labor. The labor cost is much less compared to other states.
- Goats do not need much floor space and expensive shelters to rest at night times. They require less area compared with cattle.
Who Can Start Goat Farming In Bihar?
- Any one who is interested to raise the goats and have basic knowledge of goats.
- Unemployed / Landless people can go for it.
- Who wants to earn part time income along with other job.
- Who have good grazing and pasture areas.
- Who are willing to invest in commercial goat farming business.
How To Start a Goat Farming in Bihar
It is required to get some basic goat farming training, If you are planning to start a commercial goat farm in Bihar. This training will be helpful in selection of goat breeds, knowing about goat care and marketing. Visit nearest local commercial goat farms in Bihar to know more about profitable goat breeds and their management. The goat farmer should have a proper goat business plan which should have information about goat breeds to marketing strategies. You can also buy or download free goat farming project report for a complete end-to-end goat business management and tips. It is recommended to watch YouTube goat farming videos and download goat farming PDF for better understanding of the goat farming industry.
Goat Rearing / Farming Systems in Bihar
- Intensive (Zero grazing): In this type of systems, goat is reared by feeding in the shed/house itself. This is also called intensive stall-fed goat farming. Goats are not allowed outside for grazing on pastures.
- Semi-Intensive: In this rearing system, Goat is allowed for free-range grazing for some time, then they are fed in the goat house.
- Extensive: In this rearing system, Goats are completely allowed in free-range grazing and the animals only allowed in the house at night for resting.
Goat Farming Requirements in Bihar
You must have an idea of what kind of inputs are required to establish a commercial goat farming in Bihar.
Fixed Cost (Investment) for Commercial Goat Farming in Bihar
- Grazing Land/Pasture (for semi-intensive and extensive rearing methods)
- Goat shelter/shed/house.
- Room for feed/fodder management.
- Fodder cutting machine for daily forage.
- Refrigerator for storing medicines/vaccination and milk.
- A fresh water supply tank which may include bore-well.
- Fencing around the goat house.
- In case of dairy goat, milking equipment should be bought.
- Feeding Trough for all the animals on the farm.
- For goat weight check up, buy a weigh scale to monitor the animal weight periodically.
- Required Ropes and any other tools used in goat house.
Goat Purchase Requirement
- You should purchase Breeding female goats (Does).
- You should purchase Breeding male goats (Bucks).
Operating Expenses Throughout the Animal Growth
- Medicines, scheduled vaccinations and veterinary charges.
- Fodder/Feed concentrates and other nutrition (mineral and supplements).
- Labor expenses (fixed and seasonal).
- Maintenance and repairs of shed/ house, feed room, fences, electrical and mechanical equipment and any other unexpected costs.
- Cultivation cost of fodder, If you plan to grow green fodder crops (like maize, cereal crops).
- If you plan to grow green fodder in a hydroponic system, you may incur additional costs for hydroponic set up.
- In case of silage making, you may have to spend additionally for digging the pits and other materials.
Breeds Selection for Goat Farming in Bihar
Selection good goat breed plays a major role in successful goat farming in Bihar. It is better to have your veterinary professional while buying as he can direct your for better breed selection. You must avoid old, too young and sick animals. Never buy single goat as these are social animals.
Selection Breeding Female Goats (Does) for Goat Farming in Bihar
- When you purchase breeding does (females), make sure you buy them from a region with similar climatic conditions of your local climate. This can help the animals adapt the local environment very easily.
- You should select a breeding female goat with large teats for easier milking.
- The selected goat breed should have a good appetite, and well formed pupils.
- The selected breeding female goats should not be less than 20 to 21 kg.
- Make sure the selected breeding female goat udder is palpated.
- Avoid buying the breeding female goats from individual sellers and local markets instead buy from certified goat breeding centers.
- Too young goats (below 6 months old) and above 2 years goats should be avoided. Never buy sick and old goats.
- Your veterinary doctor is right person to help you in selection of healthy and profitable breeding female goats.
Selection of Breeding Male Goats (Bucks for Goat Farming in Bihar
- It is recommended to select at least 1year old breeding buck.
- Selected breeding male goats should have good height and strong framework.
- Check the farm records for knowing more about the breed history, especially producing line, and feeding habits of animals.
- Buy the breeding male goats from high twinning production breeds.
- Ensure the selected breeding male goats are active and ready to breed in-heat doe.
- Replace the breeding male goats for every 3 to 4 years based on doe condition.
Which goat breeds are suitable for Bihar agro-climatic conditions?
Indigenous / local goat breeds of Bihar
- Bengal breed (Black Bengal Goats).
Other Goats (Imported/Cross bread/Exotic)
Selection of Farm Location For Goat Farming in Bihar
- Location should be secure and should have good road access, water and electricity resources.
- The site selected for goat farming should be an elevated area. This should be less prone to rain water access.
- The selected goat farm location should be freed from all kinds of threats which may include wolves, wild dogs and other predators.
- Make sure the farm is close to any town for easy accessibility of medicine and other required inputs.
- Goat farm should be established where abundant labor is available for permanent and seasonal activities.
Goat Shed / Shelter / Housing for Goat Farming in Bihar
The required goat shed should be on an elevated area by using the material based on your budget. Goat house walls must be 10 ft X 12 ft of elevation, built with cement and brick. Make sure that the goat house is built in East-West direction for proper cross-ventilation. The goat shed roof may be built with an asbestos sheet. Prevent any rainwater or wetness from the goat house and always keep the shed clean and dry.
Usually, each animal (adult) requires a floor space of 10 to 12 square feet for easy movement. Goat shelter should be constructed based on the number of goats, the number of feeders, drinkers, any additional required items. Build the feed room by attaching to the main shed. This can provide easy access for managing the daily feed inputs. The goat house flooring may be built with cement covered with paddy husk or some other dry hay materials. The will ensure the goat urinals absorb easily and also provides good heat in a cold climate in winters.
Consider to build elevated flat type beds, because goats love to rest with this kind of beds. Ensure proper lighting in goat house of barns all the time. Goats normally consume around 30 to 35% of their day’s intake during the night time when the lights have been provided. The goat house also requires outside fencing, for preventing the goats from jumping to other fields. Barbed wire fencing may be provided for this purpose.
Goat Breeding for Goat Farming in Bihar
Breeding may be carried out by the natural way of buck mating or with artificial Insemination.
Generally, breeding female goats can reach puberty from 5 to 16 months. The best breeding age is about 11 to 12 months. 1 male goat is enough to breed with 25 female goats and always main this ratio as 1:25.The best breeding time for your goats is daily during oestrus. Goats have an average gestation period of 150 to 155 days.
What are the heat symptoms in breeding goats?
- Abnormal mucus discharge from the vulva.
- Frequent urination with uneasiness.
- Lack of appetite, taking less food and bleating.
- If the female goats are trying to stay near the male goats.
Care for Goat Farming in Bihar
Your goal is to reduce the mortality rate of goats on the farm, so caring your goats, especially Healthcare and right feeding is the utmost priority. This care should be provided at all stages of the growth period. Newly born goat kid nose and the entire body should be wiped with clean, dry cloth in case of mother goat is unable to clean the kid. After giving the birth, kids should be fed with colostrum (mother’s milk). In case of goat kid is not taking colostrum, you can make arrangements for bottle feeding with goat milk or cow milk for first 5 to 6 days.
Breeding male goats should be provided with additional nutritious feed rations. Pregnant goats should have extra care and observed carefully till they deliver the kids. All required medications and vaccinations should be provided with a help of veterinary professional. Apart from the frequent de-worming should be carried out in all ages of goats.
Feed / Fodder Requirement Goat Farming in Bihar
Proper feeding of goats directly reflects in profits. You must concentrate in feed management of goats. Apart from daily forage, they require minerals and other vitamins for quick and healthy growth. You can get mineral cubes in local markets. You can hang them in the goat house. Dry matter also required along with green fodder. Remove any poisonous plants from open grazing areas of the field. You should know that feed intake is different for different age of goats hence the feed ration should be according to their age.
You can increase the feed intake, according to the growth rate. When it comes to feed/fodder intake, usually an adult goat may consume 6 kg to 7 kg of green fodder every day. Provide at least 1 kg of dry hay along with green fodder.
What kind of green crops can you grow for goat food?
Legume Crops for goat farming in Bihar:
- Hedge Lucerne.
- Stylo grass.
Cereal Crops for goat farming in Bihar:
Grass Crops for goat farming in Bihar:
- Hybrid Napier.
- Blue buffalo grass.
- Guinea grass.
- Para Grass.
Tree Crops for goat farming in Bihar:
In case of Stall-fed / Intensive / Zero-grazing goat farming in Bihar, you can cut these green fodder crops and make 1 inch small pieces with the help of feed cutting machine. These small fodder pieces can be placed for goats. As we know growing fodder in drought conditions is tough and goats may not get proper feed. To overcome this, when green fodder crops are available, you can make silage and store it for future use. You can make silage from maize/corn crop. This silage serves as an excellent feed and help in the goat fattening process as well.
Tips for Goat Farming In Bihar
- Never experiment with large number of goats until you get the experience. Start with a couple of animals and increase the herd size as you gain the experience in this field.
- Never mix male and female goats except in breeding times.
- When you purchase goats, consider buying with 8 to 10 kg weight and having a minimum of 8 to 9 months of age.
- Required vaccinations should be completed before entering the farm.
- Do not mix newly purchased goats with old stock. Keep them separate at least 30 to 45 days and observe carefully. After 1 month or so you mix all of them.
- Make sure the veterinary doctor is available to visit the farm frequently to check the all animals health. This has to be carried out on a frequent basis.
- You should keep an eye with goat feeding habits and their endurance for finding any unexpected abnormalities.
- Never keep more breeding male goats than required. This may cause fights and abortions. it is advised to maintain correct male and female ratio. It should be always 1:25 (for every 25 female breeding goats, 1 male breeding goat is enough).
- You should sell of any unproductive, sick and older goats to slaughterhouses.
- You should replace the male goats for every 3 to 4 years and buy the new breeding healthy male goats.
- From preventing any health issues, clean feed and water must be provided. Feed trays should be cleaned daily and never allow a goat to feed from other trays.
- Keep the Vaccination book for requires and schedules goat vaccination.
- From covering any unexpected loss or damage, insure all the goats with livestock insurance companies.
Goat Farming Training in Bihar or Goat Farms List In Bihar
You can find out more about goat farming training and breed information with local Bihar Animal Husbandry department.