Introduction to Goat Farming in Assam:
The following information is about Goat Farming In Assam.
In general, the goat is known as “Poor man’s cow” and goat farming is a very important component of dry lands. The other types of lands like marginal or undulating lands doesn’t suit the goat farming business. Goat farming needs low investment, but generates higher returns to the farmers. The products of the goats like manure, milk and fiber also have high demand in the markets.
In Assam, we believe that the total goat population is 60 Lakhs. The breeds that are reared by the farmers are not just the native breeds of Assam, they also rear some other breeds of Punjab like Beetal and Sirohi and raise some crossbreed varieties.
Scope and Importance of Goat Farming in Assam and National Economy
Goat farming plays a vital role in the national economy; the total population of goats in India is 70.25 million. It is a small business for the farmer in the initial stages, but gradually the demand of goat and its products increase the farmer’s income and expand his/her business.
Role in Economy and Contribution of goats to people
- Food: In India, the goat milk has high demands like cow’s milk and the meat is also extensively used in food.
- Fiber or Skin: The products like pelts, hides, wool and hair are contributed from the goats.
- Weed Control: They control the weeds when they are allowed to range freely.
- Storage: Goats are known as walking refrigerator as they store their milk for a long time and the goats can be milked numerous times in a day.
- Dung and Water Material: The waste material from the goats has high demand because this is used as farmyard manure for the plants.
- Employment: For less literate, unskilled and low income farmers the goat farming is a source of livelihood.
Loans and Subsidies for Goat Farming In Assam
As we know the goat farming is one of the most profitable businesses among all other livestock’s business. India is one of the largest producers of goat milk and meat. The demand among people for goat milk and meat is increasing gradually. While starting and setting up the farm, farmers with poor economic background are provided support through the grant of loan and subsidies under various schemes outlined by the Central and State Government.
For starting a goat farming business NABARD provides assistance to the farmers. As per the size of the project and the region of the farm the loans and subsidies are released. The economical support is given to the farmers through the NABARD. For more exact information and details, visit the official website of the NABARD.
Advantages of starting a Goat Farming Business In Assam
- Goats can tolerate hotter climate than the other livestock animals.
- They can be handled easily.
- They are very social animals.
- The demands of their housing are very few. They don’t need a separate house because they can share their house with their owners happily or with other livestock.
- For the economically backward farmers it is a good and profitable occupation.
- Goats are very easy and cheap to maintain.
- The landless agricultural labours, ladies and children can raise the goats.
- Goats thrive well on feed varieties like leaves, kitchen wastes, shrubs, garden wastes etc.
- The goats are one among the multi – purpose animals that produce meat, milk, fiber and manure.
- For hauling light loads the goats are used in hilly areas.
- Per unit of investment, the goats give more production.
- The digestibility is high in goats.
- They can be slaughtered at a young age for meat requirements.
- Goats are relished by all sections of the society as they don’t have any religious taboo.
- Meat of the goat has high demand as it contains less fat.
- The milk is cheap but has high demand.
- The milk is good for digestion and is nutritious.
Goat Breeds of Assam
- Assam Hill Goat
- Ganjam Goat
- Bengal Goat
Goat Feed Management
The goats are one among the ruminant animals as it is a multifunctional utility. The food management is the main secret of good goat management. The farmer who has goat farm should have basic knowledge of feeding the goats properly. The feed for the goat is different in different ages and different seasons. Goats should also be provided with minerals and vitamins besides the natural feed.
- Pastures and Browsing: The Pasturing feed is one of the most efficient sources of nutrients for the goats. Pastures contain high amount of proteins and energy. They help the goat in increasing digestibility. The pastures for the goat are a mixture of grain, grass, clover, sorghum, Sudan grass, millet and Bahia grass.
- Hay: The important source of nutrients to the goat is hay. Hay which doesn’t contain mold should be fed to the goats. High quality of hay should be fed to the goats. Large amount of nutrients, which is contained in the weedy hay, is fed to the goats. Most commonly used hay feed is alfalfa, clover and Lespedeza.
- Grain: The goats can be fed with 12 – 16 % of course grains. The goat’s weight can be increased by providing them the creep feeding. The grains that can be fed to the goats are corn, rye, moil, oats and barley. To provide the goats with energy, cereal grains can be fed.
- Garden and kitchen scrap: the kitchen and garden scarp is a good diet for the goat. The kitchen scrap like onion peels, garlic skins, orange peels, banana peels and tomato ends etc. can be used as feed. All the fruit and vegetable cuttings can be fed to the goats.
Food which should not give to goats:
- Dog Feed
- Cat Feed
Housing Management for Goat Farming In Assam
In the intensive system of production, housing is very important. One should ensure comfort and facilities to the goats for maximum profits. The goats are just like human being and they too have some physiological requirement for growth and production. The main motive of housing for the goats is to protect them from uneven climatic conditions, harsh animals and inoculated environmental stress. House management measures:
- They don’t need bedding.
- The labour which is required for cleaning and maintenance should be in less number.
- The house should be clean and dry.
- The waste of the goats should be collected immediately.
Basic requirements of goat housing
- Good location of housing / sheds
- Air inlet and outlet
- Proper drainage
- Milk barns
- Food troughs
Breeding Management for Goat Farming In Assam
In the goat farming business, breeding is very important. By goat breeding the population at the farm increases that brings more profits to the farmer. Artificial insemination of the goats is a costly way of breeding, but for the natural insemination, it doesn’t cost much. In general, commercial farming practices use the artificial insemination process for faster breeding. The goats are hardy and can adapt themselves to all types of weather conditions. The breeding is one of the most essential tasks in goat farming business and should be carried out with care.
Breed identification for Goat Farming In Assam:
The breed should be analyzed by their body temperature and blood lines. We should also determine the goat’s breeding efficiency.
While breeding, the doe goat’s age should be considered as production units.
Preparation of breeding for Goat Farming In Assam
The breed should be prepared before the breeding season by trimming hooves, vaccinating and also by deworming.
The goat obtained for breeding should not be too young for breeding. The doe should be 5 – 17 months old. The best time for breeding is at 10 – 12 months of its age.
Preparation of kidding for for Goat Farming In Assam:
The pen or house should be clean and they should be fresh air, the floor should be well drained and the house should be bedded with dry straw.
|Seasons||Season in Heat||Kidding season|
|Summer||March – April||August – September|
|Rainy||June – July||November – December|
|Winter||October – November||January – February|
The ratio of the goat should be 1: 25 i.e. one male and 25 female goats.
The gestation period of the goat is very short i.e. 150 – 155 days.
Goat Diseases and Vaccinations:
The farm should be maintained, clean and hygienic. The goat should be provided with nutrient food, sunshine and good quality pasture. By doing all this there will be fewer occurrences of health issues in the goats. The hooves of the goats should be trimmed about every 4 – 6 weeks. The goats will be sometimes affected by virus and bacteria if the trimming process is neglected. The goat should be observed daily to find out any change in behavior and physical activity. Some common diseases that affect the goats are:
- Foot and mouth diseases
- Peste Des Petits ruminants
- Goat pox
- Foot rot
- Haemorrhagic Septicemia
Endo – parasitic Diseases:
- Fluke infection
Ecto – parasitic Infestations:
- Tick, lice, etc.
For vaccinating the goats, there are two types of vaccines available:
- Live vaccinations
- Inactive vaccinations
These types of vaccination target the organism until they lose their virulence.
These vaccines are also called as dead vaccines. They target the organism directly and treat them until they are inactive. These are good at producing toxins. These vaccines also induce immunity to the goats.
- There are different modes for providing live and inactive vaccinations.
- To achieve more immunity, live vaccination should be given in a single dose.
- The inactive vaccination should be given in two doses with an interval of 14 – 15 days.
- The booster shot should be given after the inactive vaccination, such that the goats achieve full immunity.
- The vaccination for each variety of disease is different.
Tips for Goat Farming In Assam:
- Some precaution should be taken while selecting and buying the goats, healthy goats should be brought to the farm.
- The farmer should have basic knowledge about the goats.
- In the farm a first aid kit should be preserved.
- The farm should be hygienically maintained.
- The goats are social animals. They belong to the herd.
- Proper comfort should be given to the goats.
- The housing that is constructed for the goats should useful to them under all circumstances.
- The market for selling the goat should be good and profitable.
- The goats should be cleaned before selling them in the market.
Read: Nigora Goat Characterstics.