Introduction to Goat Farming in Arunachal Pradesh:
Today, let us discuss about Goat Farming In Arunachal Pradesh.
Goat farming is a basic occupation of the unemployed people; through goat farming, the farmers get high returns but may take little more time than sheep farming business. There are many advantages of goat farming. The goat farming is becoming popular day by day as the meat lovers are increasing. In India, the population is increasing as the population is also increasing. The goat is known as Poor man’s cow. We get some by – products like manure, fiber and milk. In markets, these by – products also high demand.
The goat farming plays a vital role in the socio – economic life of rural people. For landless, labour and marginal farmers the goat farming has been a main source of income. It is believed that the total goat population of Arunachal Pradesh is 36.20 Lakhs. The main objective of goat farming is the propagation of the good goat breed and conservation. India ranks first in goat farming all over the world. In Arunachal Pradesh not only native breeds are reared they also rear neighbouring state breeds also.
Scope and Importance of Goat Farming in National Economy:
Goat farming plays a vital role in the nation’s economy of India. The total goat population in India is 70.25 million goats. The employment might be small in the initial stages, gradually the demand will be increased and also the returns too. The demand increases when the meat lovers are increasing. The initial capital is low for investing on goat farming.
Loans and Subsidies for Goat Farming:
For the poor farmer those are not efficient even in investing the initial investments on goat farming. The central and state government gives assistance to the farmer through schemes, loans and subsidies. These subsidies, schemes and loans are taken in the village through NABARD (National Bank for Agricultural and Rural development).
The funds are released to the NABARD from the government. The loans, schemes and subsidies are approved by considering the size of the project and the region of the project. Then the loans and subsidies are approved and then the finance is released to the farmers. For more information about the loans, schemes and subsides one can visit the nearby rural, and co-operative banks and also by visiting the NABARD official website we can know more information regarding the schemes and subsidies.
Read: Goat Farming Cost and Profit.
Advantages of Goat Farming:
- The milk of the goat is cheap but has high demand.
- The demand for the goat milk is higher than the cow milk.
- The milk of the goat will help us in good digestion and they are also nutritious.
- Goat milk has that capability to cure all the health problems like cough, asthma, diabetes etc.
- When the goats are small in size they get slaughtered at a young age.
- The maintenance of goats is very easy and cheap to maintain.
- The housing demands of the goat are also very few. As they don’t need a separate house as their can adjust with their owners happily or else with the other live stocks.
- The goats can tolerate hotter climates than the other live stocks.
- Goats are very social animals.
- These can be handled easily.
- Goats can be raised by the children, women, and also the agricultural labours.
- Goats are also called as multi-purpose animals as they can produce many products of the investments like meat, milk and fiber.
- The goats are used in hilly areas for hauling light loads.
- For every unit of investment the goat gives more production.
- The meat of goats contains less fat, but has high demand in the market.
- Goats can be fed with crude as they have high digestibility and also we can feed the goat with roughages of poor quality also.
- By all sections of society goat are relished as they don’t have any religious taboo.
Goat Breeds of Arunachal Pradesh:
- Bengal – This is native to West Bengal
- Assam hill goat – This is native to Assam.
Goat Feed Management:
Goats are capable of consuming all types of grasses and tree leaves. After grazing it doesn’t require any extra feed. The concentrated feed of 150 – 200 grams will help them in gaining weight as well as attains to health. Along with the feed the pregnant and milch animals should be provided with feed supplements with more energy and protein.
- Salt: 1%
- GNC: 12%
- Mixture: 2%
- Skimmed milk powder: 11%
- Rice polish: 25%
- Maize: 50%
- Groundnut cake
Feed for goats:
- Garden and kitchen scrap
- Pastures and Browsing
- Maize fodder
Legume Fodder crops:
- Hedge Lucerne
A feed which should not be given to goats:
- Cat feed
- Dog feed
Goat housing management:
Goat housing is very important for intensive production of goats. For more and maximum profits one should ensure the comforts and facilities of goats. The goats also have a physiological requirement like human beings as the goat also has similarities of production and growth wise.
- Comforts are important factors in the goat housing.
- The rain water should never permit into the house.
- For taking the rest there should be enough space for the goats.
- As the goats are afraid of cold water, every day the goats should be supplied with warm water.
- The construction of the house should be done on a higher elevation so that there will be no problem if the farm is attacked by the floods.
- The floor of the farm should always be dry.
- Proper maintenance of drainage should be there.
- The ventilation should be there on the farm.
- There should be good inlet and outlet of air.
Basic requirement of goat housing;
- Greenery around the farm
- Air inlet and outlet
- Storage (Feed, Fleece, Milk, and Manure)
- Milk barns
- Feed troughs
Goat breeding management:
- During breeding week and low productive female should not be used.
- The female which is breeding should have optimum body weight along with increased milk yield, faster growth rate and better health condition.
- A goat can be used for 7-8 years for the breeding purpose.
- While selecting the females we should ensure that they should have good body weight at birth and weaning, growth rate and early puberty, a good structure of udder and inter calving period.
- In case of the goat the castration is suggested at the age of 3 months.
- The breeding techniques are of two types the artificial and natural insemination.
- The breeding will increase the population on the farm.
- The farmers will get high returns due to the breeding process.
- The artificial insemination method is mostly preferred in commercial rearing of goats.
- In goat farming business the breeding is one of the essential tasks.
The breeds should be analyzed before the breeding; they can be analyzed by their body temperature and blood lines. The goat’s breeding efficiency should be determined.
As production unit the goat’s age should be considered.
Preparation of breeding:
The goat should be prepared before breeding by trimming the hooves, deworming and also by vaccinating them.
Breeding Age of Goat:
For breeding process too young goat breeds are not suitable. The doe should be 5 – 17 months in age. The best breeding age of the goat will be 10 – 12 months.
Preparation of kidding:
The pen or the hose should be cleaned, the house should have good air inlet, the floor should also be dry and the house should be filled with dry straw as bedding for the kids.
- In summer season, March – April is the heat season for the goats, August – September is the kidding season.
- In rainy season, June – July is the heat season for the goats, November – December is the kidding season.
- In winter season, October – November is the heat season for the goats, January – February is the kidding season.
Goat ratio should be 1:25 i.e. one male and 25 female goats.
For the goats the gestation period is very short i.e. 150 – 155days.
Goat Diseases Vaccinations:
The goats should be vaccinated regularly, the goats should be observed regularly so that if there is any change in behaviour or physical activities. If there is no proper care toward the goats it might lead to the biggest loss of goat and also the kids. Goat farm should be maintained, clean and sanitized. The proper quality of feed should be given to the goats. Regularly the hooves of the goats should be trimmed; these should be trimmed about for every 6 -4 weeks. The farm should get plenty of sunshine for the goats.
Endo – parasitic Diseases:
- Fluke infection
Ecto – parasitic Infestations:
- Tick, lice, etc.
- Haemorrhagic Septicemia
- Foot rot
- Peste Des Petits ruminants
- Goat pox
- Foot and mouth diseases
The vaccinations which are given to the goats are of 2 types. They are:
- Live Vaccine or Active Vaccine
- Inactive Vaccine
Live Vaccine or Active Vaccination:
This vaccine attacks the organism until the organism loses its virulence. There are also capable of holding them as to provoke their immune to the goat which they have targeted.
These vaccines directly attack the organism fights with it until the organism becomes dead. These inactive vaccines produce toxins. The toxin which is produced can be used for vaccination purpose, then that toxin vaccine is called as Toxoid inactive vaccine. These vaccines will help the goat to attain immunity.
Goat Farming Tips:
- In the farm there should be a first aid kit.
- To the farmers the goat should be the first and major priority.
- The farmer should have basic knowledge regarding the goat farms, farming and goats.
- The female goat is known as doe.
- The male goat is known as buck.
- The female kids are called as Doelings.
- The male kids are called as Bucklings.
- Goats belong to the herd.
- While selecting the breed we should have basic knowledge of good breed and good producing breed.
- The housing of goat should be constructed strongly so that it can tolerate all types of climates.
- While trading the goats the goat should be kept in a market where the goat gives high returns and the goat breed has high demand.