Ganjam Goat Farming:
Introduction of Ganjam Goats:- Ganjam goat is one of the Indian goat breeds mostly found in Ganjam district of odhisa and surrounding states like Andhra Pradesh. These goats are also found in some areas of Madhya Pradesh and Kerala. These goats are reared for meat purpose. As goat meat has excellent demand in all states of India, commercial goat farming proved to be very profitable. Selection of health Ganjam goat breed is essential to get more profits in short period of time.
Purpose of Ganjam Goats Farming:- Meat purpose.
Goat Description /Conformation:- This breed goats are tall and medium sized animals with long legs. The predominant coat colour is brown and black. When it comes to ears, they are medium in size and kept straight or horizontal with pointed tips (drooping and pendulous). Ganjam goat head is short and compact. Both male and female Ganjam goats have horns. They are flat, twisted, directed upward and backward and curved both clock-wise and anti-clock-wise. Beard is common in adult male goats. Ganjam goats have small udder with small teats.
Ganjam Breed Characteristics and Performance:-
- These goats are very poor in milk production. On an average a female Ganjam goat can produce 300 ml to 400 ml daily.
- Lactation period of Ganjam goat is around 140 to 150 days.
- Average age at first kidding of Ganjam goat is 700-725 days and kidding interval is 420-450 days.
- Single kidding is more common in 80% cases and twinning is possible in 15 to 20% cases.
- Most Ganjam breed flocks are stationary and reared on extensive grazing/browsing.
|Goat Size (Avg)||Ganjam Male (Adult)||Ganjam Female (Adult)|
|Body weight (kg)||45||32|
|Body length (cm)||85||77|
|Body height (cm)||76||68|
|Chest Girth (cm)||84||75|
Advantages of Ganjam Goat:- The following are the advantages of Ganjam goat breed.
- Ganjam goats are excellent meat breeds.
- Ganjam goats have high feed conversion (FCR) ratio.
- Ganjam goats can also be fed with jack leaves and coconut oil cakes to help in gaining the weight.
- For best growth milk production of Ganjam goats, Alfalfa hay, Subabul, Lucerne, CO 3, CO 4, Barseem, Stylo, Dashrath, Hybrid Napier, African Tall, Sorghum, Molato, Gini Grass, corn silage, pellets, legumes and various types of green grasses can be used for daily fodder requirement.
- Ganjam goats are suitable for open grazing.
- Ganjam goats can easily adapt to any kind of climatic conditions.
- Ganjam goats are helpful in reducing un-employment in rural areas along with providing healthy and tasty milk.
Ganjam Goat Farming Tips: – The following tips are for Ganjam breed farmers who wants to go for a small scale or large scale commercial goat farming business.
- Should prepare a proper goat farming business plan before implementing Ganjam goat farming business.
- For breeding purpose, select the Ganjam goats primarily on body size.
- Before starting the farm, watch you tube videos and read any articles related to Ganjam goat farming on the web.
- Avoid any poisonous plants/ pasture/feed in the Ganjam goat farming.
- When you are planning for commercial Ganjam goat farming, visit nearest farms to know ins and outs of Ganjam goat characteristics and their management.
- Separate Ganjam kids from adults immediately at birth and feed them pasteurized milk.
- Keep the Ganjam goat herd separated from sheep and cattle.
- Trim hooves at least four times yearly. Brush Ganjam goats when needed to remove loose hair and dirt that might contaminate the milk.
- Buy Ganjam goats only from certified animal breeders and avoid buying from unknown individuals as this may bring many unhealthy animals into your farm.
- For safety, make sure to have a fence around the goat farm/house.
- Make sure the Ganjam goat house has very good ventilation for fresh air and light.
- All Ganjam goats should be given proper initial vaccinations before entering into your farm.
- It is advised to have a veterinary doctor to examine the Ganjam goats on regular basis.
- Pregnant goats, newly born Ganjam kids should be provided with minerals and nutritious feed.
- Select quality Ganjam male goats and good reproductive Ganjam female goats for breeding.
- Pregnant Ganjam goats should be given special attention for healthy kidding.
- Timely vaccinations in Ganjam goats will reduce the mortality rate and result in great weight gain and milk production.
- Clean water and timely feeding is important in Ganjam breed farming.
- Milking machinery and equipment should be kept clean to avoid any contamination in Ganjam goat farming.
- Isolate the sick Ganjam goats from the goat flock as soon as possible.
- Making home grown silage will reduce the cost of feed in Ganjam goat farming.
- Should act quickly with any unexpected diseases in Ganjam goats.
- Ganjam Goat kids should be given a special care to ensure sufficient food and milk till they attain certain age and weight.
- Milking the female Ganjam goats twice a day is advisable especially before providing the fodder/feed.
- One should ensure better feeding and pasturing practices in Ganjam goat farming.
- Have a proper plan of marketing Ganjam goats. This plan should be prepared well before starting of Ganjam goat farming.
Breeding in Ganjam Goats: – If you are planning for commercial breeding of Ganjam goats, it is better to consider various factors when planning the breeding cycle.
- Fodder/Feed flow and feed availability.
- Natural estrus cycle of the Ganjam goats.
- Market cycle.
- Marketing date and personal management factors.
There are various factors which affect the reproduction percentage of the ewes which are listed below.
- Season of breeding.
- Age of Ganjam goat.
- Body mass of Ganjam
- Feed and nutrition.
Mass Mating in Ganjam Goat Farming:- Find the mating ration of male and female with local animal husbandry. (In most of the goat cases, it is 1 male (buck) per 25 to 30 does). One should make sure that the mating the young ewes happen separately from the mature ewes.
Single Mating in Ganjam Goat Farming:- Find the mating ratio of male and female with local animal husbandry (In most of the breeds, it is 1 male (buck) per 20 to 25 females (does). With regard to the above, it is very important to keep male goats in small shady camps during hot periods with a small amount of growing supplement and Male Ganjam goats should only be let loose among ewes during the evening. This system works particularly well in cases where goats are penned at night.
Artificial insemination in Ganjam Goat Farming:- Well, there is an option for artificial insemination in any goat breeding. For artificial insemination in Ganjam goats, contact local animal husbandry for more information.
Ganjam Goat Housing:- Proper goat housing is very important and should be secured when you are going for stall-fed Ganjam goat farming. Wooden flooring is considered best for their house. The place selected for farming of Ganjam goats should be dry and free from any insect-pests and predators. The shed/house floor should be cleaned daily to make the goat house hygiene. Proper ventilation and airflow should be maintained for preventing any diseases. Supply of clean water to prevent from diseases is essential in Ganjam goat farming.
Ganjam Goat Price:- Goat price depends on many factors like breed, age, season and region. However, commercial breeders can bargain for best price. The Ganjam goats which are cross bred with local goats may cost less whereas pure bred goats cost more. If the goats are bought in flocks at local markets or in professional breeding centers, one can get cheaper prices. It is advised to buy from certified breeders. The following prices may change according to area, and time.
The price of Ganjam goats depend on weight, age and breed type (pure bread or cross bread).
- Male goat of Ganjam cost 275-325 Rs/kg (live weight).
- Female Ganjam goat cost about 250-275 Rs/kg (live weight).
Marketing of Ganjam Goats:- A proper goat business plan should ensure the profits in goat farming. Commercial Ganjam goat farmers should have marketing plan for bulk goat sale. Goat farmers can also sell their goats in batches based on their age, weight. Local agents, meat shop owners can be contacted for regular supply of Ganjam goats.
Bottom Line of Ganjam Goats:- Ganjam goats are excellent breed for commercial meat production.