Commercial Goat Farming:
Introduction of Commercial Goat Farming:- Commercial Goat farming is a process of rearing Goat for commercial production of meat, milk and wool (leather). Commercial Goat production is increasing day by day in India as the demand for meat is growing. People are from different professions getting into Goat farming business as this has huge scope of getting profits. This also lots of economic importance in India as this provides excellent income for marginal and landless farmers. In order to be successful in commercial Goat farming, one should have proper Goat farming business plan before rearing the Goat on large scale. The Goat business plan should include goat breed type, basic infrastructure (House/Shed), number of animals, feed management, Insurance, vaccinations (Disease control) and other medical information and marketing. Pregnant female goats and newly born kids needs more care in terms of nutrition/feed and medical attention. If you are going for Ram program where only male Goat is being raised, have proper batch plan meaning that one batch Goat flock should be ready for marketing when other batch enters into your farm.
Benefits of Commercial Goat Farming:- Goat farming plays major role in economy of the country by providing wool, meat, milk, skins and manure especially in arid, semi-arid and mountain regions. There are many advantages of Goat farming.
- Goat does not require heavy investment and set up. When compared to other livestock, Goat requires less labor and maintenance.
- Goat can be multiplied very fast with breeding which avoids the need of buying Goat in the future.
- Goat is suitable for both stall-fed and open grazing. They easily convert green grass into meat, milk, wool and manure.
- Goat eat all kinds of grass including weeds in agriculture/orchard fields. Goat are natural weed destroyers. Goat produce manure which can be used in organic farming and give scope of earning extra income.
- Home grown silage (fodder made from green crops) can be fed to Goat in the farm.
- Commercial Goat farming provides employment to rural population. As Goat meat has excellent demand, there are no issues with Goat marketing.
- Goat farmers can get loan from banks which are being re-financed by NABARD (National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development).
- Goat sale provides more profits especially during some festivals like Eid and Dussehra.
How to Start a Commercial Goat Farming:- One can start a Goat farm with couple of animals and expand to large scale. Here are some tips to start a Goat farm.
- First and foremost, decide the type of program meaning whether the farming is intended for meat purpose (ram program) breeding or kidding , milk (ewe program) purpose.
- If possible attend Goat training programs conducted by state animal husbandry or agriculture universities.
- Read Goat farming blogs for articles and watch YouTube videos to have basic knowledge of Goat farming.
- Go to nearest goat farms to clarify any doubts and observe farm management practices.
- Select high kidding percentile Goat breeds, so that they can be multiplied very fast.
- Decide whether the Goat rearing is stall-fed or semi stall-fed or open grazing. If it is stall fed, grow your own green crops and make silage.
- Prepare your basic Goat farming business plan with all the information required including bank loan.
- Construct house/shed and buy feeding equipment, grass cutting machine, weighing scale which are pretty much essential in goat farming business.
- Buy healthy Goat breeds only from certified Goat breeders..
- Hire a veterinary doctor well before starting a Goat business so that he can guide in selection of healthy animals and vaccinations.
- Prepare a proper marketing plan in place to sell the Goats in bulk.
Location for Commercial Goat Farming:- Selection suitable location also plays major role in commercial Goat farming. Location should be having good and clean water with proper ventilation. Make sure the location has road approach for easy transport of Goat. It is better to select a location nearer to local markets. Location should be free from any predators like country dogs/wolfs.
Goat Breeds for Commercial Goat Farming:- Selection of Goat breed is vital for successful Goat farming. There are many Goat breeds available in India regions. The following list of Goat breeds is available to specific region in India. Presently there are more than 20 goat breeds available for commercial goat farming. The following common goat breeds reared in India. Some of the famous goat breeds are; Sirohi, Osmanabadi, Jamunapari, Barbari, Black Bengal, Boer, Talacherry, Surti, Beetal, Alpine, Totapari, Malbari, Anglo-Nubian, Sojat, Barbari, Sangamneri, Jhakrana, Kiko, Saanen, Toggenberg and Damascus.
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Construction of House (Shed) for Commercial Goat Farming:- A well-constructed Goat house ensures successful commercial Goat rearing. Goat shed should be built in such a way that abundant air flow and ventilation pass through. Based on your budget, Goat house can be built either with concrete and cement or with wood. Keep house floor always dry by cleaning the floor frequently. The size of the Goat house depends on number of animals. Usually an adult Goat requires 20 to 25 sq. feet. Build fencing around the Goat house to prevent them from predators. In case of stall-fed Goat, feeders and drinkers should be placed in shed. One can built these with cement as part of shed construction.
Feed Requirement in Commercial Goat Farming:- Feed formulation and planning for feed in drought conditions are important. If you own the land, grow any green crops like maize, millet and grams. Make home grown silage by using these green crops. This silage can be stored and used when there is no feed available. For silage making process, go here. Feed your Goat with fresh and nutritious food. You can buy nutrient and mineral blocks in the market to feed along with regular fodder. Pregnant Goat and kids need more nutritious food. Provide fresh water and make sure to check weight and animal behavior on regular basis.
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Diseases in Commercial Goat Farming:- Controlling seasonal diseases and un-expected disease is mandatory to decrease the mortality in goat farming. Hire a veterinary doctor and make him visit your farm every week to check for problems. Always isolate sick animals from the flock until they recovers.
Vaccinations in Commercial Goat Farming:- Timely vaccinations in goats will ensure the healthy growth and reduce mortality rate. Initial vaccinations should be given before entering into farm. Subsequent vaccination should be followed based on recommendation of veterinary doctor.
Management Tasks in Commercial Goat Farming:- Best management practices are required to be successful in Goat farming. Providing good feed formulation, timely vaccinations, selling the livestock at suitable age are part of successful Goat farm business.
Insurance for Commercial Goat Farming:- Any business is risky without coverage. It is advised to insure the entire stock in commercial Goat business. There are insurance companies in India which cover the Goat farm. Contact the United India Insurance Co. Ltd, the Oriental Insurance Company Limited or the New India Assurance Company Ltd for more information about Goat insurance.
Subsidies, Bank Loans in Commercial Goat Farming:- There are many subsidies and schemes available for commercial Goat farming business in most of the states in India. Basically, NABARD (National Bank for Agriculture & Rural Development) is an apex development bank with a mandate for facilitating credit flow for promotion and development of agriculture including livestock. In order to get bank loan, Goat farmers should apply in the nearest branch of a Commercial, Co-operative or Regional Rural Bank. Farmers should prepare a project report for Goat farm (Bank faculty will help you to fill the application farm and in preparing Goat farming project report). You can also contact NABARD to prepare the project report on behalf of you. Typically this project report will include breeding animals, construction of sheds, and purchase of equipment. After submitting project report, bank will take the audit the report by visiting the farm location based on techno parameters in project report. After ensuring technical feasibility and economic viability, corresponding bank will approve the scheme and payments will be made in stages against creation of specific assets such as construction of sheds, purchase of equipment and Goat. Generally Loan interest will be 10 to 12 % (annually). The repayment of tenure would be 5 to 6 years. However, bank does not bear entire project cost. Goat farmers should make some percent of down payment. Usually small farmers will pay 5%, medium farmers pay 10% and large scale farmers pay 15% as down payment under NABARD guidelines.
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Bottom Line of Commercial Goat Farming:- With proper Goat business plan and well-management practices, commercial Goat farming is defiantly a lucrative business.